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This book provides a chronological study of popular cinema in Brazil since the introduction of sound at the beginning of the 1930s. It begins the study with a brief discussion of how people understand the term 'popular cinema', particularly within a Latin American context. The focus is on films that have intentionally engaged with 'low-brow' cultural products, whose origins lie in pre-industrial traditions, and which have been enjoyed by wide sectors of the population, chiefly at the lower end of the social hierarchy. Perhaps the most important contribution of the chanchada of the 1950s was to render visible a social class within Brazil's socio-cultural landscape, and to champion the underdog, who succeeds in triumphing, through malandragem, over more powerful opponents. Brazilian popular cinema, at least until the 1980s, can be seen as a direct descendant of other shared cultural experiences. Popular film in Brazil is littered with examples of carnivalesque inversions of societal norms and established hierarchies. The 1930s witnessed the rise of the radio, the record industry and the talking cinema. The first half of the 1940s witnessed a continuation of Getúlio Vargas's quest for economic expansion based on the creation of a dignified workforce, rewarded for its efforts by improvements in the welfare system. The book also looks at three very popular cinematic sub-genres which provided a continuation of the chanchada tradition in Brazilian filmmaking: the films of Amacio Mazzaropi; those of the comedic quartet known as the Trapalhoes; and the so-called pornochanchada series of films.

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Stephanie Dennison and Lisa Shaw

, including the creation of a state film distribution agency, a sizeable increase in the national film quota, the proliferation of ‘quota quickies’ and a loosening of censorship restrictions. The chapter is divided into two sections. The first section looks at three very popular cinematic sub-genres which provided a continuation of the chanchada tradition in Brazilian filmmaking: the films of Amàcio Mazzaropi

in Popular cinema in Brazil, 1930–2001
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David Annwn Jones

area of Gothic influence (Hand, 2013 : 271). The primacy of Bram Stoker’s vampire novel for F. W. Murnau’s Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (1922) and the subsequent influence of Expressionist films in general on 1930s Hollywood cinema have led to the instatement of Gothic Noir as a cinematic sub-genre. Writers of new Gothic fiction such as Stephen King and Joyce

in Gothic effigy
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Shakespeare shaping modern movie genres
R. S. White

expectations in his plays anticipate, can be adapted into, a range of film genres dealing with love, and in some cases can be claimed as cinematic sub-genres in their own right. Making such claims risks the twin dangers of overstating or underestimating such an influence and I try to steer a middle course between the two. On the one hand, I certainly do not want to give the impression that every film genre, let

in Shakespeare’s cinema of love