The afterlives of empire in the Indian Citizenship Act, 1947–1955
defining the answer to another succinct question: ‘Who is an
Indian citizen?’ This seemingly simple question was a great
dilemma for Indian officials as they set out to draft a framework for
Indian citizenship, a process that took more than eight years to
complete and remained a subject of debate long afterwards. The making of
‘eternal file’ 2 , as one Indian diplomat called it, was in no
citizen of France and of the world. Introducing Amis américains , Frémaux defines cinema
as a continent unto itself. If that’s true – and why not? – it must be said that Tavernier is
ultimately and above all a citizen of cinema.
He nevertheless published Pas à pas dans la brume électrique ,
his journal about making the film.
‘I have the film I wanted.’
‘While civil war was tearing France apart during the reign of Charles
Using political and critical theory, this article identifies in James Baldwin a
model for citizenship unique to the Black artist who assumed the dual
responsibilities of art practice and political activism. I engage with
Baldwin’s fiction and his writing about other Black artists working in
theater, film, dance, and music during the period of the civil rights movement.
Across his career, Baldwin’s prevailing view was that, because of their
history, Black artists have the singular, and indeed superlative, capacity to
make art as praxis. Baldwin explains that the craft of the Black artist depends
upon representing truths, rather than fantasies, about their experience, so that
they are at once artists pursuing freedom and citizens pursuing
justice. This article pays particular attention to the tension between living a
public, political life and the need for privacy to create art, and ultimately
the toll this takes on the citizen artist. Baldwin demonstrates how the
community of mutual support he finds among Black artists aids in their survival.
In his writings on Sidney Poitier and Lorraine Hansberry, his friendships with
Beauford Delaney and Josephine Baker, as well as his reviews of music and
literature, Baldwin assembles a collective he refers to as “I and my
A comparative analysis of the experiences in EU countries
The citizens’ legislative initiative:
a comparative analysis of the experiences
in EU countries
The article was buried on page 9 in Le Monde on a Saturday in 2011,
when the media was dominated by a US-led attack on Libya and the
continuing crisis following a massive earthquake in Japan, which had
led to nuclear contamination. Still, it was there. The French newspaper
reported how the German Social Democrats (SPD) and their colleagues
in the Austrian Labour Party (SPÖ) were preparing to introduce a bill
through the ‘Initiative Procedure’ introduced in the
saying ‘Congratulations’. It's deflated.
Citizenisation policies emphasise citizenship as something to become and reward the becoming citizen whose citizenship skills and attitudes are deemed fitting with the national community of value. Previous chapters show how ‘the becoming citizen’ is implicit in understandings of the ‘model citizen’ who not only must be law abiding,
but who must be ‘model’ in all
years’, I answered quickly to change the conversation, knowing already where it was about to end. ‘Ah sure you're practically one of us’, the stranger said with a smile, and resumed fiddling with his mobile phone where he sat opposite me on the long bus journey home to Donegal.
Hyphenated citizens are positioned in a precarious situation. One longs to be accepted into both one's ‘home’ and host society, only to be met with questions of identity that conflict the mind. One's longing to belong can never be satisfied, because one is for example
In January 2014, Aisha became a British citizen. She had arrived from Pakistan in 2002 on a spousal visa. She was a single mother of two when we met. She had divorced from her husband in 2011 and moved to the North West with her children to start a new life.
Aisha went through the process described in previous chapters. She was granted settlement on the basis of marriage two years after her arrival. At the time, she didn't have to take the language or citizenship test for indefinite leave to remain (the law changed later in
function in the waiting room of citizenship. Documents are a good starting point to address the main question of this book: how are citizens and ‘migrants’ made and unmade? The chapter shows not only how migrants are (re)migratised or citizenised through documentation, but also how citizens can be citizenised or migratised as well. Existing research in migration charts the performative, formative and affective character of documents such as forms or letters (Navaro-Yashin 2007 ; Darling 2014 ; Gill 2014 ; Horton and Heyman 2020 ). Some draw on new materialism to
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Understanding citizen politics: a
Before beginning this analysis of the problems of political participation,
it is necessary to briefly consider how we might study a phenomenon as
complex and multifaceted as politics.
There is no simple answer to that question. David Hume, the eighteenth-century Scottish philosopher, inspired by Isaac Newton, suggested that ‘[p]olitics may be reduced to a science’ (Hume 1985), yet he
failed to spell out what
Empowering the young citizen
Stripped down to basics, citizenship is both an equality of status grounded
in legally circumscribed freedoms, and a way of allocating rights and duties
in accordance with membership of a political community. In the more
historically informed sense, citizenship is what Nikolas Rose calls a ‘moral
technology of discipline’ (1999: 101). Histories of the playground as discussed
in chapter 3 offer a glimpse of what is at stake when we view citizenship
in this way, because although we are now witnessing a historically novel
event to the