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Landscape, display and identity

This book explores the influence of imperialism in the landscapes of modern European cities including London, Paris, Rome, Vienna, Marseilles, Glasgow and Seville. The first part considers some ways in which the design of urban landscapes articulated competing visions of the imperial city, including large-scale planning and architectural schemes, urban design and public monuments. The final shape of the Queen Victoria Memorial in London suggests an oddly tenuous relationship between the creation of imperial space and the representation of the empire itself. The notions of empire and romanità are expressed through the location, styling and form of the Vittoriano in Rome. The second part of the book considers the role of various forms of visual display, including spectacular pageants, imperial exhibitions and suburban gardens, in the cultural life of metropolitan imperialism. The material transformation of Paris with rhetorical devices reveals a deep-seated ambiguity about just how 'imperial' Paris wanted to appear. Sydenham Crystal Palace housed the Ethnological and Natural History Department, and its displays brought together animals, plants and human figures from various areas of the globe. The largest part of imperial Vienna's tourist traffic came from within the Austrian lands of the empire. The last part of the book is primarily concerned with the associations between imperial identities and the history of urban space in a variety of European cities. The book considers the changing cultural and political identities in the imperial city, looking particularly at nationalism, masculinity and anti-imperialism.

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Overlapping territories, intertwined histories
Felix Driver and David Gilbert

omnibus network to sell their wares: ‘Just as the flag links the empire’s commerce, so does the General link up the world’s greatest city’. Other London Underground posters promoted visits to military, naval and explorers’ memorials as ‘pilgrimages of empire’, and a similar rhetoric was exploited in publicity for exhibitions at Wembley, the Science Museum and the Imperial Institute (‘the empire under one roof’). If in this rhetoric Whitehall was ‘the high-street of empire’, South Kensington or Kew Gardens were the places to see

in Imperial cities
Transnationality and urban ideas in Africa and Palestine
Editors: Liora Bigon and Yossi Katz

The present collection is intended as a study of European planning ideas in the form of garden city concepts and practices in their broadest sense, and the ways these were transmitted, diffused and diverted in various colonial territories and situations. The socio-political, geographical and cultural implications of the processes are analysed here by means of cases from the global South, namely from French and British colonial territories in Africa as well as from Ottoman and British Mandate Palestine. The focus on the extra-European planning history of Europe – particularly in Africa and Palestine in the context of the garden city – is unprecedented in research literature, which tends to concentrate on the global North. Our focus on transnational aspects of the garden city requires a study of frameworks and documentation that extend beyond national borders. The present collection is composed of chapters written by an international network of specialists whose comparative views and critical approaches challenge the more conventional, Eurocentric, narrative relating to garden cities. A guiding principle that runs through this collection is that the spread of garden city ideas into the selected colonial territories was not uni-directional, considering the ‘traditional', reductive, centre-periphery analytical framework that characterises urban studies. This spread of ideas – by nature an uncontrolled process – was rather diffusive, crossing complex and multiple frontiers, and sometimes including quite unexpected ‘flows'.

Liverpool’s inconvenient imperial past

Liverpool occupies a prominent position in the contemporary popular imagination. In spite of decades of economic decline, urban decay and a name associated by some with poverty and crime, the city's reputation is by no means a negative one. The book is a collection of essays that focuses on the strength of Liverpool's merchant marine, representing both informal and formal empire over centuries. It discusses the interracial relationships in 1950s and 1960s Liverpool to demonstrate that many African and Afro-Caribbean sailors (and others) married or had relationships with white women. Given existing deficiencies in the historiographies of both Liverpool and the British Empire, the book aims to reassess both Liverpool's role within the British imperial system and the impact on the port city of its colonial connections. Liverpool's success has often been attributed to, and marred by, its being the leader in the slave trade after 1750. Napoleonic Wars were a period of great turbulence and difficulty for the Liverpool commercial community. Liverpool is perceived as a diasporic city, however, its ambiguous nineteenth-century identity reflected the tensions of its complex migrant connections. An analysis of Liverpool's business connections with South America reveals its relative commercial decline and the notion of 'gentlemanly capitalism'. The African ethnology collection of National Museums Liverpool's (NML) ethnology collections are displayed in the 'World Cultures' gallery of the World Museum Liverpool, which opened in 2005. Liverpool is perhaps not exceptional, though its networks are notable and striking.

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Tourist images of late imperial Vienna
Jill Steward

In 1913 the Vienna correspondent of the London Times , Wickham Steed, wrote, ‘For forty years the Viennese have been studying how to draw a stream of foreign visitors to their city and for forty years have been astounded at their failure.’ 1 Nevertheless, by the early twentieth century Vienna, capital of the Habsburg empire, was one of the most popular tourist centres in Central Europe. One reason for this was the city’s function as the home of the emperor and the political and symbolic centre of

in Imperial cities
The Pageant of London, 1911
Deborah S. Ryanc

The imagination thrills at the thought of it – a great series of London Pageants, a vivid reproduction of historical scenes which will not only bring home to the citizens of London the historic greatness of their city, but will serve to shew in striking manner the important part it occupies as the centre of a world-wide Empire. Such a series of Pageants will form a fitting culmination to the many recent representations of scenes from the history of other ancient English cities. The

in Imperial cities
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Cities have been missing from analyses of the crisis and debates about how to generate a sustainable recovery. Illuminating recent trends and emerging risks, Cities and Crisis is about the future, starting where we are.

A fresh assessment is needed of what has changed since 1990 and what has not, of policy assumptions about urban economies, of the lessons of experience. Cities and Crisis looks at the strengths and weaknesses of macro-economic and sectoral policies to guide urban development in both declining and growing cities and regions.

Without higher levels of urban innovation and infrastructure investment, growth will remain below potential.

Stronger urban economies is not our only challenge. We can expect more frequent and more costly environmental, health, and even economic crises. Cities and Crisis frames a discussion of the vulnerability of cities, resilience, and the limits of domestic regulation to cope with mega-disasters and cross-border risks.

The urban transformation which covers what must change in cities, to reduce the infrastructure deficit, improve productivity, and cope with emerging and known risks, must accelerate from the historical trend of 1-2% to 3-4% per year. This is unlikely to happen as long as governments seem unable to set out a vision of the future of cities. The urban agenda, including security and cross-border risks, will have a major impact on nation-states in the 21st century.

The level of uncertainty must be reduced if people are to have confidence to invest for the future. The West has always resolved once-in-a-century crises with a paradigm shift that speaks to our collective fears and hopes. Drawing on dozens of OECD reports on economic, environmental and governance, Cities and Crisis provides a “long-term, big-time” framework to put cities at the centre of policy.

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Urban ethnography in Manchester

This book gives ethnographic accounts of Manchester's urban challenges from 2002, journeying through the city over a fourteen-year period, into the halls of power and out to local communities to understand the effects of the style of 'entrepreneurial' governance. It focuses on fieldwork in socio-cultural settings to explore broad themes ranging from kinship relations to the effects of globalisation, from birth and death rituals to migration and organisational structures. The book illuminates who, how, where, why and what happens in city making through observations from situated urban ethnographers living and working alongside civic actors. It provides an ethnographic description of political relations in the city of Manchester by focusing on recent attempts to distribute responsibility for reductions in the city's carbon emissions. The book draws insight from the author's fieldwork where a nurturing approach by an events organization mingled with multiple community groups and stakeholders in the creation of a major civic parade. It argues for an 'emergent city' urban policy, inspired by organisers of civic parade in Manchester, which involved over 1,800 participants from ninety community groups. A tracing of the development of the lounge and an attendant notion of 'loungification' is provided in the book. The book also explores tensions in how organizational processes and community aspirations are negotiated through physical sites in urban spaces. The impact of city administrative or political activity can be traced through ethnographic analyses, in particular as a presence that affects people's ability to realise their own ambitions.

Parade making as a cultural trope for urban policy
Jessica Symons

2 Nurturing an emergent city: parade making as a cultural trope for urban policy Jessica Symons The city inside us all I pedalled my bike down the back of Castlefield, past the canals and converted mills, over the footbridges, by the geese pecking in the grass, sun glinting in the water, refracted across the apartment windows. I barely passed a soul those early summer weekdays as I wended my way through to the industrial units which sat behind the flats. The sound of laughter and music greeted me as I locked my bike up and wandered into the expansive space

in Realising the city
Glasgow – imperial municipality
John M. MacKenzie

In 1899 J. K. McDowell wrote an excited preface for his book The People’s History of Glasgow. In it he urged that the history of the city should be taught in schools and colleges in order to impart the lessons of ambition, useful industry, self-reliance, corporate endeavour and individual effort. All of these would demonstrate how Glasgow had become, and could remain, ‘the first municipality in the world and the second city of the British Empire’. 1 ‘I belang tae Glesca and Glesca belangs tae me’ was

in Imperial cities