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Nation-building in Germany and Vietnam

This book examines nation-building ideology in the soldered states of Vietnam and Germany. Official nation-building ideology is understood here as the government-led construction of national identity, memory and history in order to promote an 'imagined community'. This ideology aims to maintain legitimacy within territorial limits, those of the state, and defines the limits of national belonging accordingly. The German and Vietnamese experiences are similar in using regional integration not only to improve their international standing, but also their domestic legitimacy. Comparison of Vietnam and Germany shows that despite contextual disparities, common trends emerge in governments' handling of advantages and obstacles to nation-building. Both soldered states face the same challenge of post-unification state legitimation. Their governments also use both nationalist and regionalist narratives in pursuit of that goal, offering insights into the ideological construction of communities in the context of past, divergent development. In sum, the German and Vietnamese cases have been chosen for their shared experience of national division, communism and participation in regional integration projects, namely the European Union (EU) and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). These themes are examined through empirical examples of nation-building ideology - namely selected cityscapes, museums and textbooks - with an analytical focus on national icons, heroes and myths as nodal points of nation-building.

Elite European migrants in the British Empire

While most of the Germans who suffered expulsion during the First World War lived within British shores, the Royal Navy brought Germans from throughout the world to face incarceration in the their network of camp. This book offers a new interpretation of global migration from the early nineteenth until the early twentieth century. It examines the elite German migrants who progressed to India, especially missionaries, scholars and scientists, businessmen and travellers. The book investigates the reasons for the migration of Germans to India. An examination of the realities of German existence in India follows. It then examines the complex identities of the Germans in India in the century before the First World War. The role of the role of racism, orientalism and Christianity is discussed. The stereotypes that emerged from travelogues include: an admiration of Indian landscapes; contempt for Hinduism; criticism of the plight of women; and repulsion at cityscapes. The book moves to focus upon the transformation which took place as a result of this conflict, mirroring the plight of Germans in other parts of the world. The marginalisation which took place in 1920 closely mirrored the plight of the German communities throughout the British Empire. The unique aspect of the experience in India consisted of the birth of a national identity. Finally, the book places the experience of the Germans in India into four contexts: the global history of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; German history; history of the British Empire in India; and Indian history.

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-colonial practice, only to be revolutionised once more with the desacralisation and decolonisation of space under communist rule (Drummond 2000 , 2378). The buildings, museums and monuments which marked the cityscape were invested with a new range of meanings in line with the dominant ideology, illustrating how the city can be considered a microcosm of nationalist symbolism. Symbolic capitals

in Soldered states
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their vehicles watching for clients. The pavement is thus full of obstacles, but in constant flux too, as traders and wares, clients and passers-by come and go throughout the day. The kerbside is also a fluid space. Motorbike drivers may mount it to park, or view goods, or manoeuvre merchandise into place. Again, the multifaceted and shifting cityscape can be seen as a microcosm of all but the most authoritarian states, whose

in Soldered states
Byron and the geography of Italy

largely dispensed with in Childe Harold IV, in favour of ‘the author speaking in his own person’ as he directly encounters a range of landscapes, cityscapes and landmarks. Consequently, as W.  J.  T. Mitchell puts it, Byron’s ‘picturing, imagining, perceiving, likening and imitating’ of place are not the background to a narrative of self but rather the constitutive elements of that narrative.5 The direct experience of place becomes the basis of a whole poetic praxis, rather than an added embellishment. For Byron, as for other Romantic expatriates, Italy becomes a

in Byron and Italy
A visual narrative of the Romanian transition to capitalism

Charles Baudelaire. The flaneur was the wanderer, the one who strolled the streets and absorbed their contrasts and intensity. Fascinated by Baudelaire’s writings, Walter Benjamin picked up his concept of the flaneur and used it to describe the streets of nineteenth-century Paris, the transformations in the industrial cityscape and the influence that these transformations had on everything from fashion to the way in which people related to their environment and each other. As a modern anthropologist, philosopher and poet at the same time, Benjamin was fascinated by how

in Revolution, democratic transition and disillusionment
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’s multivocal mappings of cityscapes marked by revolutionary and republican rupture. Cultural horizons of their still marginocentric capitals extend further, compounding contradictions (and thus distinguishing these cross-culturally complicated memoried modernist configurations of cultural discourse from their European counterparts). But the differences necessary to dialogism in these eccentric citytexts are also mediated by generational conflict and degeneration. Digressive, divided, dissenting, contradictory lines of eccentric cultural construction are further complicated

in EccentriCities

Hinduism (especially in the case of missionaries); the position of women; and the prevalence of poverty and disease. However, many travelogues devoted positive attention to the Indian landscape, although descriptions of cityscapes often contained negative language focusing upon poverty and disease. While Germans may form part of the European elite in India, they distinguished themselves not simply from

in The Germans in India

architecture and ambitious cityscapes that sit, sometimes uneasily, alongside detailed tables, text and photographs (see figures 1.1–1.10 and 2.1).2 Though never realised to any great extent, the Plans appear to represent a time when British cities gazed at the limitless possibilities of the post-war world and imagined a better, healthier, fairer self. Looking at the Plans 70 years on they are extraordinary documents that contain a huge amount of often confusing information. Manchester’s runs to 274 pages and Hull’s 92, although with the Hull Plan being 36 x 28 cm compared

in Reconstructing modernity
Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.