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Allyn Fives

10 Sharing lives, shaping values, and voluntary civic education In this chapter, I examine the efforts made by parents to share a way of life with their children as well as those efforts made in the name of the wider society to shape the values of its future citizens. Three questions in particular are addressed. Ought we respect diversity and in addition protect parents’ right to religious freedom and, on that basis, their right to share a (religious) way of life with their children? Ought we shape the values of future citizens, and in doing so promote the

in Evaluating parental power
An exercise in pluralist political theory
Author: Allyn Fives

This is a book about parents, power, and children and, in particular, the legitimacy of parents' power over their children. It takes seriously the challenge posed by moral pluralism, and considers the role of both theoretical rationality and practical judgement in resolving moral dilemmas associated with parental power. The book first examines the prevailing view about parental power: a certain form of paternalism, justified treatment of those who lack the qualities of an agent, and one that does not generate moral conflicts. It proposes an alternative, pluralist view of paternalism before showing that even paternalism properly understood is of limited application when we evaluate parental power. According to the caretaker thesis, parental power makes up for the deficits in children's agency, and for that reason children should be subjected to standard institutional paternalism. The liberation thesis stands at the other end of the spectrum concerning children's rights. The book then addresses the counter-argument that issues of legitimacy arise in the political domain and not in respect of parent-child relations. It also examines the 'right to parent' and whether parents should be licensed, monitored, or trained children's voluntariness and competence, and the right to provide informed consent for medical treatment and research participation. Finally, the book talks about parents' efforts to share a way of life with their children and the State's efforts to shape the values of future citizens through civic education. The overall approach taken has much more in common with the problem-driven political philosophy.

Fighting the Mafia in Palermo

This book concentrates on a central issue in research on democratic processes: the development of generalised trust. The existence of generalised trust and confidence in a society is decisive for economic development and an effective democracy. Is it possible to fight persistent values of distrust and non-cooperation? Is it possible to support the development of generalised trust through public action and education? The book addresses these questions by examining political efforts to combat Palermo's Mafia-controlled heritage and to turn a tradition of non-cooperation and distrust into cooperation and trust. In particular, it focuses on the school program launched by Leoluca Orlando, Mayor of Palermo, during the mid-1990s, which was designed to break the Mafia's territorial and mental control, to restore citizens' rights and to promote a civic consciousness based on the rule of law. Combining theories on social capital and civic education, the book presents and analyses quantitative and qualitative research carried out in seven public schools in Palermo, some situated in extremely difficult areas dominated by drugs, violence and organised crime.

Carina Gunnarson

specifically of classes in civic educa­tion and other school factors in the creation of general­ised trust. This is followed by an examination of a variety of other factors potentially related to generalised trust – competing explanations – including participation in voluntary associations, educational level, family environment, neighbourhood environ­ment, economic disadvantage, personal factors and gender. What are the origins of generalised trust? Even though it is generally acknowledged among theoreticians of social capital that interpersonal trust and vertical trust are

in Cultural warfare and trust
Allyn Fives

civic education (Chapter 10). Each case study explores both empirical evidence as well as the relevant legal, policy, and service context. Each outlines the conceptual issues requiring clarification as well as the ethical questions that arise. I also try to answer those ethical questions, but always with the following proviso: these are moral decisions to be made in practical contexts, and so any answers given here will be limited in their application, in the sense that they will be offered only as responses to the problems of specific cases. Because philosophy has

in Evaluating parental power
Abstract only
Carina Gunnarson

period: the CIVITAS Congress on civic education in 1999, visited by the US first lady, Hillary Clinton, and the United Nations conference on Transnational Organised Crime in 2000. The message presented to the international audience was clear: Palermo had successfully fought the Mafia – the fight against the Mafia was over. The image presented internationally was criticised at the CULTURAL WARFARE 81 local level. Orlando was reproached for promoting too idealised a picture of Palermo; the image offered did not correspond to the local reality many Palermitans were

in Cultural warfare and trust
Hanna Bäck, Carina Gunnarson, and Magdalena Inkinen

organisations when explaining different levels of generalised trust. This study analyses the importance of institutions. Is it possible to enhance trust by state action? Is it possible to change students’ values through civic education at a grass-roots level? Research shows that generalised trust is transferred across generations; it is established early in life, is stable over time, and is dependent on education and socio-economic status. The 138 CULTURAL WARFARE AND TRUST importance of institutions for the development of generalised trust has been analysed in several

in Cultural warfare and trust
Abstract only
Carina Gunnarson

1 Introduction Can you tell me, Socrates, whether virtue is acquired by teaching or by practice; or if neither by teaching nor practice, then whether it comes to man by nature, or in what other way? (Plato, Meno) Is it possible to fight persistent values of distrust? Is it poss­ ible to support the development of generalised trust between citizens through public action from above, through civic education? Fukuyama once described the accumulation of social capital as ‘a complicated and in many ways mysterious cultural pro­ cess. While governments can enact

in Cultural warfare and trust
Abstract only
Carina Gunnarson

question of whether it is possible to fight persistent values of distrust and non-cooperation. Is it possible to support the development of trust between citizens through public action from above, through civic education? While an important part of the literature has focused on the importance of associations, there is increasing interest in institutional and political explanations for the development of trust. A general criticism of Robert Putnam’s Making Democracy Work is that he neglected state agency in his analytical model, when explaining the lack of trust in

in Cultural warfare and trust
Peter J. Verovšek

use it as a pretext.’ 53 The necessity of getting Europeans to appropriate this social imaginary raises the issue of political and civic education. The importance of schooling in the education of active citizens has long been recognised within critical theory. As Seyla Benhabib points out, ‘Schools are major public institutions … in that they are settings through which the future generations of a polity are formed. Schools are not “services”; they are crucibles of identity formation.’ 54 Approaching education in this way assumes that it is about more than merely

in Memory and the future of Europe