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Dominic Bryan, S. J. Connolly, and John Nagle

By the late nineteenth century sectarian and political divisions were inscribed on Belfast’s urban landscape. Residential segregation, creating a large Catholic residential district in West Belfast, permitted the growth of a Catholic and nationalist associational culture that would not otherwise have been possible. Key sites – the Custom House, the Ulster Hall, the city centre – acquired a political significance. Attempts by militant Protestants to impose an absolute veto on Catholic access to the city centre were defeated. But events during the Home Rule crisis of 1912–14 showed that Belfast was already on its way to becoming the capital of a potential Protestant and unionist state.

in Civic identity and public space
The mental world of a seventeenth-century Catholic gentleman
Author: Geoff Baker

This book examines the activities of William Blundell, a seventeenth-century Catholic gentleman, and using the approaches of the history of reading provides a detailed analysis of his mindset. Blundell was neither the passive victim nor the entirely loyal subject that he and others have claimed. He actively defended his family from the penal laws and used the relative freedom that this gave him to patronise other Catholics. In his locality, Blundell ensured that the township of Little Crosby was populated almost entirely by his co-religionists, on a national level he constructed and circulated arguments supporting the removal of the penal laws, and on an international level he worked as an agent for the Poor Clares of Rouen. That he cannot be defined solely by his victimhood is further supported by his commonplace notes. Not only did Blundell rewrite the histories of recent civil conflicts to show that Protestants were prone to rebellion and Catholics to loyalty, but we also find a different perspective on his religious beliefs. His commonplaces suggest an underlying tension with aspects of Catholicism that is manifest throughout his notes on his practical engagement with the world, in which it is clear that he was wrestling with the various aspects of his identity. This examination of Blundell's political and cultural worlds complicates generalisations about early modern religious identities.

Resilience and the Language of Compassion
Diego I. Meza

: Causal or Spurious? ’, Cuadernos de Economía , 36 ( 71 ), 441 – 68 , doi: 10.15446/cuad.econ.v36n71.52554 . Ibáñez , A. M. and Moya , A. ( 2007 ), La población desplazada en Colombia: Examen de sus condiciones socioeconómicas y análisis de las políticas actuales ( Bogotá : DNP ). Ibáñez , A. M. and Moya , A. ( 2010 ), ‘ Vulnerability of Victims of Civil Conflicts: Empirical Evidence for the Displaced Population in Colombia ’, World Development , 38 : 4 , 647 – 63 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
David Bolton

This chapter describes the establishment of a trauma-focused approach to the needs of those seeking help with emotional, psychological and mental health problems linked to traumatic experiences of the civil conflict in Northern Ireland. The chapter will outline the development of a therapy service based upon trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Key issues relating

in Conflict, peace and mental health
Mourning and melancholia
Guy Austin

and facilitated the rise of the FIS (Front islamique du salut), culminating in the suspended elections of December 1991 that triggered civil conflict (see Chapter 7 ). Algerian cinema has often measured the state of the nation against the ideals of the independence struggle. Memories of the revolution serve in particular as a yardstick to gauge the depths of the alienation experienced by the 1988

in Algerian national cinema
Abstract only
Robin Wilson

devolution in 2007 expired (Wilford and Wilson, 2008b: 15) – it is also impossible to bring a critical mass of the ethnic-majority community behind change if nationalists in that community can successfully present this as a ‘sell-out to terrorism’. In Macedonia importantly, interethnic dialogue after the outbreak of civil conflict could be presented instead, as Brussels was keen to do, as an integral part

in The Northern Ireland experience of conflict and agreement
Stuart Kaufman

suffering the ill effects of continued conflict. Until public opinion on both sides shifts to recognise those ill effects, and the corresponding benefits of a settlement of the conflict, the current deadlock will continue. Conclusions and future prospects There are two main themes in the argument of this chapter. The first is that ethnic civil conflicts such as the ones in Bosnia, Macedonia and Mountainous Karabagh are at the same time regional security issues whose trajectory is critically affected as much by external actors as by internal ones. The second theme is that

in Limiting institutions?
Jonathan Dunnage

to changes in regime in the dramatic situation of military occupation and civil conflict. If political belief partly determined their choices and fate, the period in question could present surprising opportunities for self-advancement, which did not necessarily depend on ideological outlook. Consideration in the latter part of the chapter of how, following the Liberation of Italy, Interior Ministry Police personnel confronted ‘de-fascistisation’ measures feeds into our broader analysis of the evolution of police culture during the dictatorship and immediately

in Mussolini’s policemen
Writing, politics, and culture in England, 1639– 89

Aesthetics of contingency provides an important reconsideration of seventeenth-century literature in light of new understandings of the English past. Emphasising the contingency of the political in revolutionary England and its extended aftermath, Matthew Augustine challenges prevailing literary histories plotted according to structural conflicts and teleological narrative. In their place, he offers an innovative account of imaginative and polemical writing, in an effort to view later seventeenth-century literature on its own terms: without certainty about the future, or indeed the recent past. In hewing to this premise, the familiar outline of the period – with red lines drawn at 1642, 1660, or 1688 – becomes suggestively blurred. For all of Milton’s prophetic gestures, for all of Dryden’s presumption to speak for, to epitomise his Age, writing from the later decades of the seventeenth century remained supremely responsive to uncertainty, to the tremors of civil conflict and to the enduring crises and contradictions of Stuart governance.

A study of major writings from the Personal Rule to the Glorious Revolution and beyond, this book also re-examines the material conditions of literature in this age. By carefully deciphering the multi-layered forces at work in acts of writing and reception, and with due consideration for the forms in which texts were cast, this book explores the complex nature of making meaning in and making meaning out of later Stuart England.

Michael Carter-Sinclair

This chapter analyses how Austria fell victim to increasing civil conflict that encompassed clashes between left and right, the rise of militias that were independent of the state and a realignment of the political right that saw the take-off of the Nazi Party in Austria. It shows how Christian Socials used political institutions to stage what was, in effect, a coup, taking control of state institutions for their own end. It demonstrates how attempts were made to rein in opposition, and then concludes with efforts made by Christian Social Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, openly supported by the clergy of Vienna, to refashion Austria along the lines of a corporate state, rather than a democracy, after a bloody Nazi coup failed to murder him.

in Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites