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Corruption breeds violence
Pavel K. Baev

7 Civil wars in Georgia: corruption breeds violence Pavel K. Baev Introduction    incredibly rich and uniquely complicated case for the analysis of modern civil wars. It is a newly independent state that appeared with the collapse of the USSR, but it also has a long history of statehood. It is a relatively small state, but it occupies a key geopolitical crossroads which has acquired strategic importance with the new development of hydrocarbon resources in the Caspian area. Its population is small and declining but the ethnic composition, cultural

in Potentials of disorder
Abstract only
Alan Marshall

A wartime tale of spying gone wrong opens up our history of espionage activities in the Civil Wars of the 1640s. In November 1642 the keeper of ‘Mary-bone Parke’ was one Cary, who was later described as a prime ‘malignant’. Even so, the Royalist Cary was chosen by the Royalist camp to go out towards Kingston in order to spy out the land and to collect secret intelligence for a prospective military raid by Prince Rupert. In order to undertake his secret mission, Cary decided to go in disguise. He dressed

in Intelligence and espionage in the English Republic c. 1600–60

For women writers, the decades of the English Civil War were of special importance. This book presents a complex and rewarding poetic culture that is both uniquely women-centred and integrally connected to the male canonical poetry. It brings together extensive selections of poetry by the five most prolific and prominent women poets of the English Civil War: Anne Bradstreet, Hester Pulter, Margaret Cavendish, Katherine Philips, and Lucy Hutchinson. All these five women were attracting new and concerted attention as poets by seventeenth-century women. Bradstreet's poems first appeared in The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America, and the later volume of Several Poemsincluded revised texts of those poems and several new ones. Each version of the poems spoke more directly on the context of the English Civil War. Pulter's poems construe Broadfield as a place of unwelcome isolation: she describes herself as 'shut up in a country grange', 'tied to one habitation', and 'buried, thus, alive'. Philips's poetry was first printed in 1664, her state-political poems, on members of the royal family and events of the Civil War, Interregnum, and Restoration, suggest Philips as a poet writing on matters of political significance. Cavendish's two major editions of Poems and Fancies in 1653 and 1664 each have strongly competing claims both to textual authority and to the more resonant political moment. Across poetry and prose, print and manuscript, Hutchinson's writing bears the marks of her fervent hostility to corrupt rulers and her remarkably broad education, adventurous reading habits, and energetic intellect.

Jason Knirck

from the revolutionary years with a stable notion of what Irish democracy was or should be. This observation sits uneasily aside most of the literature on the coming of democracy in the Free State, in which there is often an assumption that some combination of the Treaty, the constitution, and the end of the civil war consolidated Irish democracy. The Free State is touted as one of the few states

in Democracy and dissent in the Irish Free State
Ian Atherton

Battlefields, burials and the English Civil Wars Chapter 1 Battlefields, burials and the English Civil Wars Ian Atherton T he idea that ‘military care’ extends beyond death to the treatment of the war dead is not new, though the forms it has taken have varied over time. Roger Boyle’s 1677 military treatise advised a victorious general to look after the wounded and prisoners, and see ‘his Dead honourably buried’. Similar ideas can be found in a number of sixteenth-century military manuals, and can be traced back at least as far as the Graeco-Roman world.1

in Battle-scarred
Philip M. Taylor

Chapter 14 The English Civil War (1642-6) The increasing involvement of the public in both politics and warfare since the Reformation partly reflected and partly caused the growth of propaganda. In England in the 1640s it exploded into full scale civil war, or the Great Rebellion as it was known. Professor Kamen again: The situation had to be faced: revolutionary propaganda was more than an exercise in persuasion; it frequently reflected genuine popular attitudes, it was committed not to the support of established parties but to the questioning of all authority

in Munitions of the Mind
For Whom the Bell Tolls
David Archibald

Democratic and Republican Party candidates, Barack Obama and John McCain, both listed For Whom the Bell Tolls among their favourite novels, their literary tastes highlighting the enduring appeal of Ernest Hemingway’s Spanish Civil War epic, at least in the US. (Keller, 2008 ) The novel was first published in 1940, and Paramount Pictures released a cinema adaptation in 1943. An analysis of the film and its transition from page to screen forms the main part of this chapter. 1 As background to this analysis, and in order to highlight the changing nature of US cinematic

in The war that won't die
William White

with generating manpower were far from over. Recent historiography has emphasised the fluidity and contingency of Civil War allegiance, with one historian suggesting that it ‘might be better to think in terms of the responses to particular mobilisations rather than a fixed allegiance to one of two sides’. 2 Allegiance was something that needed to be constantly maintained and

in The Lord’s battle
Zahira Araguete-Toribio

This article considers how the reburial and commemoration of the human remains of the Republican defeated during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) is affected by the social, scientific and political context in which the exhumations occur. Focusing on a particular case in the southwestern region of Extremadura, it considers how civil society groups administer reburial acts when a positive identification through DNA typing cannot be attained. In so doing, the article examines how disparate desires and memories come together in collective reburial of partially individuated human remains.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Andrew Hadfield

The advent of the Civil War in 1642 saw all restrictions lifted from the printing presses and a wealth of popular political material appeared as the variety of factions that started to develop – Presbyterians, Levellers, Diggers, Royalists, Anabaptists, Quakers, Muggletonians and so on – published their own works free from the fear of censorship. 1 Central control had disappeared over publishing and, consequently, from the political world. If opposition to the king was more or less united in

in Literature and class