events of the ‘bloody year’ (1882) as ‘a comedy to
those who think, a tragedy to those who feel’. 3 The comedy
was that the idea of Britain's ‘civilisingmission’
had become justification for the repression of Egypt's liberty.
The tragedy was that in 1882 Britain made a ‘mockery of
self-government’ by using military force to restore an Egyptian
regime that had been the object of liberal critiques over
careers that caused them to group together and challenge the
legitimacy of British rule. Central to the tension that this created
was a sense that British authorities in India were violating the
acceptable discourse of British imperial society – the
discourse of class.
Class, education, and
Among white women in colonial
India, it was the female missionaries who undoubtedly participated
most closely in the colonial ‘civilisingmission’.
They established schools for girls and taught both in the regular
schools as well as in the zenana classes that were held for grown
women inside Indian homes. 1 Women missionaries also wrote prolifically about
claims on the empire. 7 As Susan Lawrence has written,
‘ethnicity consists of traits believed to be shared with others,
but the constellation of those traits is fluid and actively negotiated
according to circumstance’. 8 In the case of Sierra Leone, those material
culture claims were tied up with the metropolitan argument over the
success of legitimate commerce and the civilisingmission in replacing
The military occupation of Egypt exposed the British government to charges of self-interest and the betrayal of Britain's liberal political principles. This book is a comprehensive portrait of the British colony in Egypt, which also takes a fresh look at the examples of colonial cultures memorably enshrined in Edward W. Said's classic Orientalism. It presents a study that takes Edward Said's theory of colonial culture as a first reference and follows his method of analysing various British cultural products that involved some sort of cultural exchange. British residence in Egypt was facilitated by commercial treaties, known as the 'Capitulations'. The idea of Britain's 'civilising mission' had become justification for the repression of Egypt's liberty. Arguing that Said's analysis offered only the dominant discourse in imperial and colonial narratives, the book uses private papers, letters, memoirs, as well as the official texts, histories and government reports, to reveal both dominant and muted discourses. While imperial sentiment set the standards and sealed the ruling caste culture image, the investigation of colonial sentiment reveals a diverse colony in temperament and lifestyles, often intimately rooted in the Egyptian setting. British high commissioner Sir Miles Lampson's interventions in Egyptian domestic politics marked a momentous turning point in imperial history by spurring extremist nationalism. The interwar time of uncertainty witnessed a see-sawing of the imperialistic and the liberal or internationalist impulses.
This book focuses on the role of class in the encounter between South Asians and British institutions in the United Kingdom at the height of British imperialism. The leaders of Britain's cricketing institutions recognised the validity of ranks in an Indian social hierarchy which they attempted to translate into British equivalents. Achievement of Kumar Shri Ranjitsinjhi, one of the greatest cricketers of all time was truly an imperial one, combining the cultures and societies of India and Britain to propel him to a prominence that he would not otherwise have attained. The most important government institution to interact with Indians in Britain was the India Office. The National Indian Association was the most popular forum for interaction among Indians in Britain and Britons interested in India. The London City Mission and the Strangers' Home for Asiatics were the prominent inner-city missions to reach out to Indians in London. The book explores the extent to which British institutions treated Indians as British subjects, sharing a common legal and imperial identity with the inhabitants of the British Isles. It identifies patterns of compassion among Britain's elite when interacting with needy Indians in the United Kingdom, and establishes the central role of education in the civilising mission, particularly through scholarships to study in Britain. The book focuses on the ambiguous responses of British institutions to Indian students in the United Kingdom, ranging from accommodation of Indian culture to acquiescence in British bigotry.
This book explores colonial gendered interactions, with a special focus on the white woman in colonial India. It examines missionary and memsahibs' colonial writings, probing their construction of Indian women of different classes and regions, such as zenana women, peasants, ayahs and wet-nurses. The three groups of white women focused upon are memsahibs, missionaries and, to a certain extent, ordinary soldiers' wives. Among white women in colonial India, it was the female missionaries who undoubtedly participated most closely in the colonial 'civilising mission'. The book addresses through a scrutiny of the literary works written by 'New Indian Women', such as Flora Annie Steel. Cross-racial gendered interactions were inflected by regional diversities, and the complexity of the category of the 'native woman'. The colonial household was a site of tension, and 'the anxieties of colonial rule manifest themselves most clearly in the home'. The dynamics of the memsahib-ayah relationship were rooted in race/class hierarchies, domestic power structures and predicated on the superiority of the colonising memsahib. The book also examines colonial medical texts, scrutinising how they wielded authoritative power over vulnerable young European women through the power/knowledge of their medical directives. Colonial discourse sought to project the white woman's vulnerability to specific mental health problems, as well as the problem of addiction of 'barrack wives'. Giving voice to the Indian woman, the book scrutinises the fiction of the first generation of western-educated Indian women who wrote in English, exploring their construction of white women and their negotiations with colonial modernities.
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti
scholarship that have rarely been intersected but have been
univocal in their critique of gendered and racialised ‘civilisingmissions’ ( Wilson, 2011 ; Repo and Yrjölä, 2011 ; Bergman Rosamond, 2016 ; Bergman Rosamond and Gregoratti, 2019 ;
Budabin, 2020 ).
In this paper, however, we seek to gain a deeper understanding of the specificities
of this entrepreneurial discourse through an exploratory comparison of IKEA’s
partnership with the Jordan River Foundation (JRF) in
forces physically and professionally, they also played an
ideological and political role. ‘Progress’ under naval
instruction reinforced the notion of a ‘civilisingmission’, where colonial peoples still required
Britain’s paternal guidance before they were considered
‘developed’ enough to govern themselves, politically and
between women and religious spaces. Moving between rural and
urban worlds, with a focus on a sacred and feminised rural landscape
in the late nineteenth century and popular Catholic devotions in urban
areas in the early twentieth century, it explores women’s central roles
in the chapel, parish, and landscape. Here, we see clear effects of Ireland’s patriarchal civilisingmission. The newly disciplined space of the
parish chapel in particular provided Ireland’s clergy with a powerful
tool to contain and control the female body. Many priests were indeed