slave on bended knee, asking ‘Am I not a man and a
brother?’ Settlers would have appreciated the image of a
black man on his knees, but the caption must be ‘Am I not your
Race, obviously, was the dividing line in colonial Kenya.
Whites brought civilization to Africa. Africans must defer to whites as
higher beings. Whites ruled, Africans were the ruled. These were truisms
Theodore Roosevelt’ssecond corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
the Philippines, Hawaii and Guam. This
demographic, economic and territorial expansion was accompanied by an
extension in the nation’s ideological horizon. With the USA
adopting a more active role in global affairs, an international
humanitarian consciousness began to take root in American society.
Expressing themselves in the language of civilization and progress,
Americans urged their government to
came to be known as the ‘standard of civilization’. 2
European international society and the
‘standard of civilization’
International society as it emerged from the
Renaissance was the Christian society of states, despite the fact that the classic
jurists from the sixteenth to the mid-eighteenth century (Vitoria, Suarez,
Gentili, Grotius, Pufendorf, Wolff and Vattel) 3 had spoken in terms of universal society, though probably not
in the sense that we use
The Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements)
of the different countries, into which we had carried what we
called the blessings of civilization’. 46 Once proposed, the House of Commons
quickly agreed to the motion for a Select Committee on the state and
treatment of Aborigines in British Settlements. The historian Elizabeth
Elbourne has argued that this was not because of a necessary willingness
for parliament to champion the cause, but because Buxton had moved a
The Gothic is the discourse which embodies the dialectic of the Enlightenment, with its potential to push the frontier of reason into the mythologized darkness. Embarking on the use of genre fiction as political discourse and finding a voice to tell a story of her generation, Carter made a major breakthrough in her career. Making use of the Gothic palimpsest, Carters Marianne leaves behind the sphere of (feminine) ‘interiority’-the psychic spaces of desire and anxiety for the (supposedly masculine) catharsis in the Other world, as a sixties heroine of sensibility. Heroes and Villains calls for the reconstruction of enlightenment at the ‘post-modern’ ruins of civilization.
This study maps the influence of the Gothic mode in the Czech postmodern prose,
especially in the novels published at the turn of the millennium: it primarily
concerns books by Václav Vokolek, Miloš Urban and Jan Jandourek.
Through analyticalinterpretative probes into these texts are demonstrated the
main possibilities of the Gothic mode and consequences of its implementation in
the contemporary Czech literature: distortion of the perspective and blurring of
the individual identity, instability of the setting, expression of
civilizational and existential fears. The study illustrates capturing of the key
Gothic themes in the analyzed works of fiction and also the specific
transformation and modification of these topics within individual author
poetics. Special attention is particularly given to specifics of the setting,
often combining typical Gothic topoi, which may be part of seriously intended
opposition of the sacral and the profane, or they can also be presented as
exposed cliché sceneries.
Martin , S.
( 2015 ), A Short History of Disease:
Plagues, Poxes and Civilizations
( Harpenden : Oldcastle
Rieff , D.
( 2002 ), A Bed for the Night:
Humanitarianism in Crisis ( London :