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Trevor Curnow

This article explores the origins and early development of the cult of Asclepius. Most of the relevant materials are found in classical literature, although archaeology can also help to shine some light on certain areas. Unsurprisingly, the origins of the cult are quite obscure. A number,of places in ancient Greece competed for the honour of being his birthplace, and there is no conclusive reason for deciding in favour of any of them. One thing that is constant in the stories told about him is that Apollo was usually his father. Another constant in the history of the cult is the practice of incubation. It seems likely that the cult brought together and combined elements of several healing cults that were originally quite separate. The cult emerged at the same time that Hippocratic medicine was developing. A new understanding of the nature of the soul, and the relationship between it and the body was also taking root. It is reasonable to believe that these facts are related, although harder to say exactly how.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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Faith, folly, and ‘The Faerie Queene’

Once a byword for Protestant sobriety and moral idealism, Spenser is now better known for his irony and elusiveness. Yet his sense of humour is still underestimated and misunderstood. Challenging the bias behind this neglect, this study shows that humour, far from being peripheral or superficial, goes to the heart of Spenser’s moral and doctrinal preoccupations. It explores rifts between The Faerie Queene’s ambitious and idealising postures and its Protestant vision of corruptible human nature. Figures to be comically ‘undone’ include the hero, the chivalric lover, the virgin, and the ideal monarch – as well as Spenser’s own epic-poet persona. Yet bathos has a positive significance in Christian theology, and Spenserian humour proves to be an expression of tolerance and faith as well as an instrument of satire. On this basis, Comic Spenser contends that the alliance of humour and allegory in The Faerie Queene affirms the value of the creative and ‘errant’ imagination.

Evgeny Roshchin

1 The ambivalence of ancient friendship In this chapter I set out to highlight common ways in which classical literature uses the concept of friendship in the context of relations with foreign powers. I do not aim to analyse the whole corpus of ancient Greek and Roman literature. The task of this chapter is much more modest. It will deal with a small number of classical authors who were invoked, often in an eclectic manner, in early modern literature on the law of nations, and later in international relations, as intellectual authorities or sources of

in Friendship among nations
Staging Carmen’s death
Phil Powrie

6 From heterotopia to metatopia: staging Carmen’s death Phil Powrie There have been some eighty film adaptations of the Carmen story since 1895 (excluding over thirty TV films), based either on Prosper Mérimée’s novella (1845) or on Georges Bizet’s opera (1875), or on a combination of both. It is one of the most adapted stories in cinema history, and the most adapted classical literature in French cinema (the next most adapted being the fifty-odd film versions of Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables). Those adaptations range across national cinemas: the USA is the most

in French literature on screen
History of a concept

This book is about friendship between sovereign political agents, whose role in the modern world is performed by states. It focuses on relations of friendship that bind together whole polities. Apart from bilateral friendships, the world has seen multiple attempts to posit friendship as the true foundation of a properly organised international community. The attempts range from the World Alliance for Promoting International Friendship through Churches, to the United Nations Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States. There are two basic roles that friendship can play in the discourses on international relations. The first is as an anthropomorphic metaphor for the relations between states. The second functions as a constituent part of a normative argument seeking a change in international relations. The book highlights common ways in which classical literature uses the concept of friendship in the context of relations with foreign powers. David Ramsay references to 'the ties of ancient friendship' as an important gesture in communication with native Americans. The ethical concept of political friendship is never strictly separated from the performance of political roles. Samuel Pufendorf's description of commonwealths as moral persons stirred up intense debate over how to conceive the sum of such artificial persons and the relations between them. Finally, the book talks about normative and 'naturalist' consensual understanding by scrutinising the justificatory functions of friendship in diplomatic agreements.

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Classical and Renaissance intertextuality

For educated poets and readers in the Renaissance, classical literature was as familiar and accessible as the work of their compatriots and contemporaries – often more so. Their creative response to it was not a matter of dry scholarship or inert imitation, but rather of engagement in an ancient and lively conversation which was still unfolding, both in the modern languages and in new Latin verse. This volume seeks to recapture that sense of intimacy and immediacy, as scholars from both sides of the modern disciplinary divide come together to eavesdrop on the conversations conducted through allusion and intertextual play in works from Petrarch to Milton and beyond, and offer their perspectives on the intermingling of ancient and modern strains in the reception of the classical past and its poetry. The essays include illuminating discussions of Ariosto, Du Bellay, Spenser, Marlowe, the anonymous drama Caesars Revenge, Shakespeare and Marvell, and look forward to the grand retrospect of Shelley’s ‘Adonais’. Together, they help us to understand how poets across the ages have thought about their relation to their predecessors, and about their own contributions to what Shelley would call ‘that great poem, which all poets… have built up since the beginning of the world’.

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Barry Jordan
Rikki Morgan-Tamosunas

industry (Alvarez 1997 : 36). As if this were not enough, in a country in which classical literature in film form rarely, if ever, gained an audience, Pilar Miró’s adaptation (spoken in verse) of Lope’s El perro del hortelano (1996), was running at number six in the box-office returns for 1996 (Alvarez 1997 : 34). The film’s striking success represents just one example of the industry’s current ability to generate audiences for a

in Contemporary Spanish cinema
Lucy Hutchinson and the classicisation of scripture
Edward Paleit

tradition of educating daughters: the Mores and Sidneys, for example. It has also been suggested that in a marriage market peopled by human­istic­ ally educated men, educated women had enhanced prospects.3 Towards the end of the seventeenth century, arguments promoting the equal education of women began to appear alongside the development of girls’ schools teaching some Greek and Latin; probably the two phenomena were related. However, even in the case of women who were, exceptionally, given access to ­classical literature, the ideological and social endorsement classical

in Early modern women and the poem
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The precariousness of positive emotions in Webster’s The Duchess of Malfi
Lalita Pandit Hogan

trees’ grown over ‘stagnant pools’, whose ‘abundant fruit’ is eaten by ‘none but crows, pies, and caterpillars’. The expression of moral disgust separates him from them, as the plum tree in stagnant water is separated from human beings and caters only to the lesser among the bird species. At the same time, the fruit of disgust is not wholly aversive, but attractive, because Bosola aims to be a ‘flattering pander’, and ‘hang on to their ears like horse-leech’ (1.1.48–55) . Exploring the role of disgust in establishing emotion ontologies in classical literature and

in Positive emotions in early modern literature and culture
W.J. Reader

Sassoon, Ronald Knox, Raymond Asquith’s sister Lady Violet Bonham-Carter, and other friends, relations and servants. Upper-class intellectual culture was founded on the tradition of ‘liberal education’ - that is, education for the life of a gentleman - at the greater public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge. Among the Souls and their children links with Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, were especially strong. As Raymond Asquith’s epitaph was intended to indicate, it was principally an education in classical literature

in 'At duty’s call'