Alison Forrestal

chap 3 22/3/04 12:52 pm Page 74 3 Lower clergy versus bishops The church desperately needed men like Bérulle and Olier to formulate coherent theologies to underpin its reform initiatives. Yet not everyone agreed that the church should function according to a hierarchical arrangement that gave bishops absolute authority over the clergy below them in rank. Fundamental disagreements over the complicated questions of hierarchy and jurisdiction brought many tough challenges for French bishops, for they were pitted against members of the lower clergy and even

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Erica Longfellow

Chapter 9 . The Isham family and their clergy Erica Longfellow I n the early 1620s Daniel Baxter, rector of All Saints, Lamport, North­­ amptonshire, wrote to Lady Judith Isham of Lamport House to thank her for the letter she had written following his wife’s death. Baxter began his letter with conventional thanks for her condolences, but before the end of the first sentence he had descended into an account of his ‘comfortless desolation’, a despair that we would now probably call depression. Baxter bewailed the fact that he had lost ‘father, mother, brethren

in Chaplains in early modern England
Joseph Hardwick

Over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the Church of England emerged as one of Britain’s largest employers. Few other professional groups were as numerous, or as ubiquitous, as the clergy who tended the Church in England, Ireland and Wales. 1 By the end of the eighteenth century the clergy were growing in numbers and also spreading out. America would be

in An Anglican British World
Anthony Milton

Chapter 2 ‘Civill warres amongst the Clergy’, 1632–1640 W riting to Sir Gervase Clifton in 1637, one of his correspondents remarked on the outbreak of what he called ‘the civill warres amongst the Clergy, whose pennes are their pikes and so they fight dayly between the Table and the Altar, whose severall battayles are set forth in diverse books’.1 Contemporaries were struck by the violence and acrimony of the religious pamphlet disputes of the 1630s. These were civil wars that pre-dated those of the laity in the 1640s, and were fought with pens rather than

in Laudian and royalist polemic in seventeenth-century England
Alan Ford

4 • Scottish Protestant clergy and the origins of dissent in Ireland alan ford ‘The origins of dissent’ is in many respects an old-fashioned title, redolent of the innumerable articles in Victorian Baptist journals with titles like ‘Pioneers of Congregationalism’. Such scholarship is readily classifiable: it represents what has been labelled ‘vertical history’ – the history of a particular church, usually written by an ‘insider’ ‘which has been all about origins, title-deeds, pedigree and descent’.1 It is a notable feature of those religious traditions that

in The Scots in early Stuart Ireland
The churches and emigration from nineteenth-century Ireland
Author: Sarah Roddy

The book knits together two of the most significant themes in the social and cultural history of modern Ireland - mass emigration and religious change - and aims to provide fresh insight into both. It addresses the churches' responses to emigration, both in theory and in practice. The book also assesses how emigration impacted on the churches both in relation to their status in Ireland, and in terms of their ability to spread their influence abroad. It first deals with the theoretical positions of the clergy of each denomination in relation to emigration and how they changed over the course of the nineteenth century, as the character of emigration itself altered. It then explores the extent of practical clerical involvement in the temporal aspects of emigration. This includes attempts to prevent or limit it, a variety of facilitation services informally offered by parish clergymen, church-backed moves to safeguard emigrant welfare, clerical advice-giving and clerically planned schemes of migration. Irish monks between the fifth and eighth centuries had spread Christianity all over Europe, and should act as an inspiration to the modern cleric. Tied in with this reading of the past, of course, was a very particular view of the present: the perception that emigration represented the enactment of a providential mission to spread the faith.

Editor: Grant Tapsell

The later Stuart church inherited many of the problems that had been faced by its antecedents at institutional, social, and intellectual levels, but was also rocked by several new and profound challenges. It is important, therefore, to locate the established church within a long-term framework of gradual developments and sharp disjunctures. This book offers an account of how clerics and laymen experienced the events of the period between the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the Hanoverian succession of 1714. Politics and religion under the later Stuarts were powerfully intermingled, rather than sharply differentiated categories. Some clerics exercised considerable secular power, whilst many laymen dictated the terms of the church's position at local and national levels. Indeed it could hardly have been otherwise when religious beliefs were made into a shibboleth for holding public office and clerics expounded political maxims from pulpits across the land. Having sketched in the basic framework of relevant events in the later Stuart period, and their historical and geographical contexts, it remains to conclude by drawing them together. Three themes emerge as paramount because of their capacity to ignite contemporary discussion in the light of past experience. These include: the conflicting sources of authority for the Church of England, the relations between clergy and laymen, and the question of how successfully the church exercised its pastoral function.

Open Access (free)
Oral culture in Britain 1500–1850
Editors: Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

Human beings have developed a superabundance of ways of communicating with each other. Some, such as writing, are several millennia old. This book focuses on the relationship between speech and writing both within a single language, Welsh, and between two languages, Welsh and English. It demonstrates that the eighteenth-century Scottish clergy used the popular medium of Gaelic in oral and written form to advance the Gospel. The experience of literacy in early modern Wales was often an expression of legal and religious authority reinforced by the spoken word. This included the hearing of proclamations and other black-letter texts publicly read. Literate Protestant clergymen governed and shaped the Gaelic culture by acting as the bridge-builders between oral and literary traditions, and as arbiters of literary taste and the providers of reading material for newly literate people. The book also offers some illustrations of how anecdotes became social tools which used to make points not only in private correspondence but also in civil conversation in early modern England. Locating vagabonds and minstrels, and other wanderers on the margins of settled society depended on the survival of the appropriate historical record. Cautionary tales of the judgements God visited upon flagrant and incorrigible sinners circulated widely in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England: stories of sabbath-breakers, swearers, drunkards, adulterers and other ungodly livers struck down suddenly by the avenging arm of the Almighty. During the age of Enlightenment, intellectual culture nourished a new understanding of non-literate language and culture.

The Church of England and the Expansion of the Settler Empire, c. 1790–1860
Author: Joseph Hardwick

When members of that oft-maligned institution, the Anglican Church – the 'Tory Party at prayer' – encountered the far-flung settler empire, they found it a strange and intimidating place. Anglicanism's conservative credentials seemed to have little place in developing colonies; its established status, secure in England, would crumble in Ireland and was destined never to be adopted in the 'White Dominions'. By 1850, however, a global ‘Anglican Communion’ was taking shape. This book explains why Anglican clergymen started to feel at home in the empire. Between 1790 and 1860 the Church of England put in place structures that enabled it to sustain a common institutional structure and common set of beliefs across a rapidly-expanding ‘British world’. Though Church expansion was far from being a regulated and coordinated affair, the book argues that churchmen did find ways to accommodate Anglicans of different ethnic backgrounds and party attachments in a single broad-based ‘national’ colonial Church. The book details the array of institutions, voluntary societies and inter-colonial networks that furnished the men and money that facilitated Church expansion; it also sheds light on how this institutional context contributed to the formation of colonial Churches with distinctive features and identities. The colonial Church that is presented in this book will be of interest to more than just scholars and students of religious and Church history. The book shows how the colonial Church played a vital role in the formation of political publics and ethnic communities in a settler empire that was being remoulded by the advent of mass migration, democracy and the separation of Church and state.

Preaching, polemic and Restoration nonconformity

This book explores the religious, political and cultural implications of a collision of highly charged polemic prompted by the mass ejection of Puritan ministers from the Church of England in 1662, providing an in-depth study of this heated exchange centring on the departing ministers' farewell sermons. Many of these valedictions, delivered by hundreds of dissenting preachers in the weeks before Bartholomew's Day, would be illegally printed and widely distributed, provoking a furious response from government officials, magistrates and bishops. The book re-interprets the political significance of ostensibly moderate Puritan clergy, arguing that their preaching posed a credible threat to the restored political order.