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Abstract only
David Hardiman

that Christians might serve their cause better if they focused on spiritual rather than biomedical healing. Whether from Newbigin’s or Kayser’s point of view, the wheel appeared to have turned against the medical mission project. This was certainly the case in western India, where there was a spate of closures of Protestant mission hospitals in the 1950s and 1960s. The main reason given at the time by

in Missionaries and their medicine
The origins of the strike
Jim Phillips

2 Closures and workplace conflict: the origins of the strike The deep roots of the 1984–85 strike were located in the long process of industrial and social restructuring that was examined in the previous chapter. The pressures on Scottish miners arising from this, with increased managerial control in pursuit of cheaper production, intensified further in the early 1980s, and resulted in a sequence of pit-level disputes. These were the more immediate origins of the 1984–85 strike. Miners facing pit closures, and troubled by managerial incursions on established

in Collieries, communities and the miners’ strike in Scotland, 1984–85
‘The shape of things to come’?
Brian Marren

3 British Leyland’s closure of the Triumph TR7 plant in Speke: ‘the shape of things to come’? The central concern of this chapter is with the mothballing of StandardTriumph’s Plant No. 2 in the southend Liverpool ward of Speke. The reasons for focusing on this incident are not only because Standard-Triumph was the first car maker to expand into Merseyside during the post-war boom, but also because Standard-Triumph’s Speke facility was the first of a number of major motor-related manufacturing establishments in the area to permanently close its gates. This plant

in We shall not be moved
Open Access (free)
Negotiated Exceptions at Risk of Manipulation
Maelle L’Homme

between public authorities and civil society organisations. The intended objectives of a corridor are largely contingent on the context in which it is implemented. Most of the time, it provides access to an area whose sovereignty is challenged, during an armed conflict, as was the case in Bosnia in 1992–95, in Chechnya in 2000, in Darfur in 2003–06, and more recently in Ukraine, for the evacuation of the cities of Donetsk, Luhansk and Horlivka in 2014. 2 But the opening of a humanitarian corridor can also be a response to border closure in peacetime. In 2014, for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

From June 1918 to April 1919, the American social photographer Lewis Hine made photographs of refugees in Europe. Refugees emerged as an unexpectedly humanitarian subject during World War I. Care for them was part of the American Red Cross’ (ARC) overall war relief activities, which Hine was hired to visually record. In this paper, I present the way in which refugees went from being framed in the ARC’s mass-circulated popular Red Cross Magazine as unique, innocent, idealized war-affected civilians to eventually being visually displaced in a shifting humanitarian landscape. For refugees who were, by 1920, making their way across the ocean to North America, visual displacement from the humanitarian visual sphere was tantamount to territorial displacement. Anxieties and negative rhetoric of the unassimilated alien prevailed, resulting in the temporary ‘closure’ of America’s borders and the ARC’s growing American-centric relief activities. Entwined with anti-Bolshevism, American immigration, and isolationist politics of the early twentieth century, Hine’s photographs and the ARC’s role in contributing to humanitarian photography are an early example of a rise and fall in sympathies towards refugees that would continue throughout the century.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Gothic Parody in Gibbons, Atwood and Weldon
Avril Horne
Sue Zlosnik

This essay examines a particular kind of female Gothic. Seizing the moment at which features of Gothic form had become sufficiently established to become part of a cultural inheritance, some twentieth-century women writers, we argue, created comic Gothic fictions that extended the boundaries of potential feminine identity. Stella Gibbon‘s Cold Comfort Farm pits an Austen sensibility against a rural Radcliffean scenario and proceeds to parody both as literary ancestors of a contemporary narrative of femininity. Fay Weldon‘s The Life and Loves of a She-Devil (1983) also appropriates aspects of Gothic to spin a darkly comic tale of literary and literally constructed ‘woman’. The essay also looks at the Canadian novel published a year earlier, Lady Oracle by Margaret Atwood, which engages playfully with the relationship between Gothic writing and the feminine. Such texts constitute a challenge to the grand récit of gender difference, a challenge that has yet to be recognized fully by feminist critics many of whom have concentrated their energies on the feminist pursuit of life-writing. Female writers of comic Gothic, however, confront the stuff of patriarchy‘s nightmares and transform it into fictions of wry scepticism or celebratory anarchy. Through parody as ‘repetition with critical difference’, the boundaries of gender difference are destabilized in the service of creating different possibilities for female subjectivity. In their resistance both to tragic closure and their recasting of the fears of patriarchal society from a feminine perspective, such texts transform a literature of terror into a literature of liberation.

Gothic Studies
The Gothic in Shelley‘s ‘The Triumph of Life’
John Whatley

The criticism of Shelley‘s ‘The Triumph of Life’ now makes up a small library of its own, though the status of the poem as a fragment yet precludes any final closure of commentary. The article proposes that criticism of the ‘Triumph’ falls between two poles. One view, of which Paul De Man is representative, sees the Shelley of his final poem as mature, becoming skeptical of romantic uses of the language of the uncanny. The other, of which Ross Woodman is representative, sees him finally as a fascinated believer in the supernatural and transcendent. This paper argues that the poem might be better seen as a complex and subtle mixing of these two frames, a skeptical fascination that relies on Shelley‘s refined use of the Gothic mode in the poem. This unstable frame results in an evaluation of Rousseau‘s philosophy as a form of truth flawed by desire, and a counterfeit ghost of the originating ideas when it reaches the public sphere. Seen this way, Shelley places Rousseau‘s ‘shape all light’ within a pantheon of other great figures of world history as an idealist who was made into a gothic cult by those in power.

Gothic Studies
Sean Healy
Victoria Russell

NGO vessels, this same claim had been made against naval SAR operations such as Mare Nostrum. 4 Naval and NGO rescuers and their supporters have, in reply, argued that the numbers of people attempting the Central Mediterranean route is largely driven by ‘push factors’ such as conflict in the countries of origin, violence in Libya, the closure of other routes and lack of safe and legal pathways. The principal effect of reduced SAR resources, they have

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis
Luisa Enria
Sharon Abramowitz
Almudena-Mari Saez
, and
Sylvain Landry B. Faye

Saez narrates negotiations between community-based organisations and the NGO in charge of opening a new Ebola Treatment Unit at the SKD 3 Stadium in Monrovia. In the final case, from Sierra Leone, Luisa Enria discusses the role of chiefs through the confrontation between the police and young Sierra Leoneans in Bamoi Luma when authorities violently imposed the closure of a market in order to avoid a resurgence of the epidemic. Despite their heterogeneity, the cases

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

liberal order, humanitarian norms and practices are increasingly contested, and the concept of humanitarianism itself is being redefined. This first issue of the Journal of Humanitarian Affairs looks at what the possible end of liberal order means for humanitarianism. How are changes in the international system affecting humanitarian institutions and cooperation? How is humanitarianism changing? How relevant are humanitarian ideas and practices today? The issue includes contributions from: Stephen Hopgood, on the closure of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs