Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 458 items for :

  • "code of conduct" x
  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All
Abstract only
Perspectives from anthropology and history

This book examines the importance of rules for many of the world’s great moral traditions. Ethical systems characterised by detailed rules – Islamic sharia and Christian casuistry are notable examples – have often been dismissed as empty formalism or as the instrument of social control. This book demonstrates, on the contrary, that rules often enable, rather than hinder, personal ethical life. Here anthropologists and historians explore cases of rule-oriented ethics and their dynamics across a wide range of historical and contemporary moral traditions. Examples of pre-modern Hindu ethics, codes of civility from early modern England and medieval Christian casuistry demonstrate how rules can form an essential element of what Michel Foucault called ‘the care of the self’. Studies of Roman exemplary ethics, early modern Christian theology and the calculation of sin and merit in contemporary Muslim Palestine highlight the challenges posed by the coexistence of moral rules with other moral forms, not least those of virtue ethics. Finally, explorations of medieval and modern Islamic sharia, Christian moral theology and Jewish halakhah all highlight how such traditions develop complex meta-rules – rules about rules – for managing the tensions and dilemmas that the use of rules can entail. Together, these case studies and the theoretical framework proposed in the book’s Introduction offer a more nuanced, cross-cultural appreciation of the role of rules in moral life than those currently prevalent in both the anthropology of ethics and the history of morality.

The Aid Industry and the ‘Me Too’ Movement
Charlotte Lydia Riley

31 accusations of sexual abuse against Save the Children staff, ten of which had been reported to the police and civil authorities ( Gillespie et al. , 2018 ). Meanwhile, the ICRC completed an internal investigation in which it discovered that since 2015, twenty-one members of staff had either been fired for, or had resigned during an investigation into, paying for sexual services, which the ICRC Code of Conduct has forbidden, even in countries where

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action1
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

significant efforts to overcome, its colonial and imperial roots. This includes changes in the way humanitarian actors interact with other cultures, especially since the 1990s. For example, the IFRC 1994 Code of Conduct states: ‘We will endeavour to respect the culture, structures and customs of the communities and countries we are working in’ ( IFRC, 1994 : 4). Later guidance documents, such as the UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies ( UNHCR, 1999 ) and the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy and Victoria Russell

between NGOs and smugglers, but it still called for greater government control over search and rescue operations, including the placement of police investigators on board vessels ( Heller and Pezzani, 2017 ). In July 2017, the centre-left Italian government of Matteo Renzi took up the recommendations of the Senate inquiry and began efforts to exert greater control over search and rescue vessels, via a ‘code of conduct’ that they

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
David Rieff

define the next half century. It is a commonplace to observe that the humanitarian world has never really known how to think about its own political role. The neutrality of the International Committee of the Red Cross, though not quite as complete as the organisation claims, is real enough in practice. But as the custodian of the Geneva Conventions, the ICRC has an international legal status that no other relief organisation can claim. Yes, major private voluntary relief groups have accepted various codes of conduct, but their adherence to these

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

linguistic and cultural diversity. It is therefore linked to Article 5 of the Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and NGOs in Disaster Relief ( IFRC, 1995 ): ‘We shall respect culture and custom.’ Access to translation may also be necessary to follow through on several other articles of the Code of Conduct, including ‘we shall attempt to build disaster response on local capacities’ (Article 6) and ‘ways shall be found

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Jeffrey Flynn

question, one attempted solution has been the ‘birth of regulation’, which Sanna Nissinen discusses in her contribution. For instance, in 1989 the General Assembly of European NGOs adopted the Code of Conduct on Images Related to the Third World , which stressed the need to emphasise the equality and dignity of subjects represented in images. In 2006, a revised Code of Conduct on Images and Messages aimed to be ‘more workable in practice in comparison to the previous

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

through a combination of political choices and repressive control, the DPRK has engineered a largely man-made (though also environmentally impacted) situation of humanitarian need. However, this does not absolve the organised international community from the humanitarian imperative to respond to suffering wherever it is found, or from ensuring the sanctions regime does not negatively impact aid. As the first point of the Red Cross and NGO Code of Conduct affirms: ‘The humanitarian imperative comes first …. As members of the international community, we recognise our

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. It endeavours to relieve the suffering of individuals, being guided solely by their needs, and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress’ ( ICRC, 2016 ). Other humanitarian codes of conduct contain similar principles. Discrimination in humanitarianism is restricted to triage – where the most effective intervention can be made on the basis solely of need. Humanitarians might, of course, be less than assiduously moral in treating those whose lives they are

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
Myfanwy James

, MSF is what its employees do in its name: employees are the organisation, its human embodiment. It is only through the behaviour of fieldworkers that principles gain meaning. Consequently, MSF staff are ‘on duty’ at all times. As several MSF codes of conduct for expatriates explain, ‘all actions and statements made by staff are seen by outsiders as representing MSF. All staff members should act in accordance with the humanitarian principles … during and outside work hours’ ( MSF-OCA, 2006 ). For MSF staff then, there risks being a tension between the personal and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs