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Jennifer Lyon Bell

Filmmaker Jennifer Lyon Bell (Blue Artichoke Films) has made empathy the centre of her practice as an alternative porn filmmaker. This blend of artist manifesto and academic essay illuminates the three ways in which empathy is a driving force at every level of her artistic efforts. 1) Structure: Using a foundation of cognitive film theory and specifically the work of Murray Smith, she builds empathy into the structure and content of her films themselves. 2) Production: She prioritises empathy in her production process on the set with cast and crew 3) Society: By creating and spreading empathetic pornography, she aims to introduce more empathy into society at large.

Film Studies
Jens Eder

Film viewers responses to characters are of a great variety; global notions of ‘identification’, ‘empathy’, or ‘parasocial interaction’ are too reductive to capture their rich nuances. This paper contributes to current theoretical accounts by clarifying the intuitive notion of ‘being close’ to characters, drawing on social and cognitive psychology. Several kinds of closeness are distinguished: spatiotemporal proximity, understanding and perspective-taking, familiarity and similarity, PSI, and affective closeness. These ways of being close to characters interact in probabilistic ways, forming a system. Understanding its patterns might help us to more precisely analyze the varieties of character engagement, which is demonstrated by an analysis of David Fincher‘s Fight Club (1999).

Film Studies
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A General Model of Visual Aesthetics
Torben Grodal

This article argues that the central dimensions of film aesthetics may be explained by a general theory of viewer psychology, the PECMA flow model. The PECMA flow model explains how the film experience is shaped by the brain‘s architecture and the operation of different cognitive systems; the model describes how the experience is based on a mental flow from perception, through emotional activation and cognitive processing, to motor action. The article uses the flow model to account for a variety of aesthetic phenomena, including the reality-status of films, the difference between narrative and lyrical-associative film forms, and the notion of ‘excess’.

Film Studies
Martin Barker, Clarissa Smith, and Feona Attwood

types) before we begin watching it, awaiting its cues and guidance. The very substantial growth of cognitive film studies since such a start has not changed this. There continues to be a real unwillingness to deal with actual audiences and the complexities that they bring to any viewing. There are, however, wider strands and tendencies within cognitive film theory connecting it with recent developments in neuroscience (including the re-emerging fascination with brain localisation – see, for instance, Hasson et al ., 2008 ; Elliott, 2010 ), and

in Watching Game of Thrones
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John Gibbs

for the necessity of a revisionist history of the kind embodied in the book itself; secondly because Bordwell’s version of the history of mise-­en-­scène criticism is advanced in the context of one of the most influential ways of writing about film style that have emerged in the intervening period – cognitive film theory. The Conclusion points to some of the more recent developments of the mise-­ en-­ scène tradition and reflects further on what the history might reveal for the present. Notes   1 Deborah Allison, ‘Close-­Up #1 edited by John Gibbs and Douglas Pye

in The life of mise-en-scène
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Andrew Dix

the spectator’s deductive and problem-solving activities is well suited to modelling our response to the detective film, but perhaps lacking in emotional generosity as an account of how we watch a melodrama. Hence critics following in his tradition have sometimes sought to co-ordinate his computational model of mental processing with cognitive film theory’s newer interest in the emotional engagements of the spectator. Like other cognitivists, though, Bordwell generalises spectator response, hypothesising that film narratives activate in us a universally shared

in Beginning film studies (second edition)
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Jens Eder and Charlotte Klonk

-​Communication”.’ New Media and Society May 1: 117–​33. Anderson, Joseph. 1996. The Reality of Illusion: An Ecological Approach to Cognitive Film Theory. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Apel, Dora. 2012. War Culture and the Contest of Images. New Brunswick, NJ:  Rutgers University Press. Azoulay, Ariella. 2008. The Civil Contract of Photography. New York: Zone Books. Barnhurst, Kevin G. 1994. Seeing the Newspaper. New York: St. Martin’s. Becker, Olivia. 2014. ‘ISIS Has a Really Slick and Sophisticated Media Department.’ Vice News, 12 July 2014. Accessed 14 June 2016

in Image operations