Debates about (in)coherence and
(in)effectiveness of EU foreign policy are nothing new. In fact,
academics and policy-makers alike have long bemoaned the failure of the
EU to shape world politics in a way commensurate to its economic power.
From the Gulf War to the Libyan crisis, the EU has been criticised for
its inability to respond to international events in a coherent and
discussion of policy evolution within the EL with a look at how this development poses threats to the EL that seem to be leading it to prioritise maximum organisational unity over policy coherence in the run-up to the 2019 European Parliament elections.
Conclusion: Divisions within the EL after the Greek experience
In February 2018, it was reported that Jean-Luc Mélenchon's PG, a core component of his FI electoral coalition and a member party of the EL, was calling for the expulsion of Syriza from EL membership. A
The aim of this article is twofold. On the one hand, it offers a survey of found footage horror since the turn of the millennium that begins with The Blair Witch Project (1999) and ends with Devils Due (2014). It identifies notable thematic strands and common formal characteristics in order to show that there is some sense of coherence in the finished look and feel of the films generally discussed under this rubric. On the other hand, the article seeks to reassess the popular misunderstanding that found footage constitutes a distinctive subgenre by repositioning it as a framing technique with specific narrative and stylistic effects.
This article argues that Charles Maturins Melmoth the Wanderer embodies an ethical attitude towards its representations of Gothic violence and horror in the way that it self-reflexively stages its horrific scenes. By confronting its readers with a shifting distance from such violent scenes, the novel exposes readers to their own desire for and victimization by Gothic horror. While previous critics have tended to see Maturins novel as either glorying amorally in its excessive Gothic representations, or as recuperating its scenes of horror with a moral message, this article sees its ambiguous and undecidable attitude towards these scenes as embodying its ethical standpoint, a standpoint that challenges the illusion of literary coherence and that exposes its readers’ implication in the horror that lies traumatically within, and not safely outside, language.
The late twentieth century is fascinated by the phenomenon of the gothic child, the child who manifests evil, violence, and sexual aggression. On the face of it, this evil is “caused” by either medical or social factors: medicinal drugs, radiation, or the corrupting influences,of political others. However, this essay argues that the gothic child actually arises from conflicting forces of child-philosophies, the intersection of Romantic childhood innocence with Freudian depth models. These models tacitly point to a child that “is” rather than “is,made”, a child that belies contemporary parental attempts to make it be otherwise. Moreover, the idea that the child is somehow immune to parental influence – that it is self-possessed rather than possessed by another – extends to the current notion of,the “inner child”, that “self” who is the seat of identity and coherence. Because of this, the gothic as often fantasizes the killing of the “child within” as it revels in killing the child without.
This book represents the first ever comprehensive study of the EU’s foreign and security policy in Bosnia since the dissolution of the Yugoslav Federation in 1991. Drawing on historical institutionalism, it explains the EU’s contribution to post-conflict stabilisation and conflict resolution in Bosnia. The book demonstrates that institutions are a key variable in explaining levels of coherence and effectiveness of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and that institutional legacies and unintended consequences have shaped CFSP impact over time. In doing so, it also sheds new light on the role that intergovernmental, bureaucratic and local political contestation have played in the formulation and implementation of a European foreign and security policy. The study concludes that the EU’s involvement in Bosnia has not only had a significant impact on this Balkan country in its path from stabilisation to integration, but has also transformed the EU, its foreign and security policy and shaped the development of the EU’s international identity along the way.
The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.
In this book, I have explored the
EU’s intervention in Bosnia since the early 1990s. My primary goal
has been to determine how coherent and effective CFSP activities in
Bosnia have been and whether a causal link exists between CFSP
institutionalisation and levels of coherence and effectiveness. The
evidence presented in this book points at the increasing
CFSP proper (Domm, 2007 ; Noutcheva, 2009 ).
Hence, taking a long view from 1991 to date, this book seeks to fill
this gap in the literature and to provide a comprehensive analysis of EU
foreign and security policy in Bosnia, using coherence and
effectiveness as its main conceptual tools.
There is indeed a significant literature that describes and
analyses the performance of the EU in world
The EU’s agricultural and fisheries policies and Africa
relationship which has been heavily influenced by policy interventions
on both sides. In the Joint Africa–EU Strategy (JAES) (European Union,
2000) adopted at the second EU–Africa Summit in Lisbon in 2007, the
EU along with Africa committed in the area of agriculture to promoting policy coherence for development, food security, food safety and
food quality. Policy coherence for development means that the EU,
in pursuing its domestic policies, will seek to avoid creating barriers
to African development and, where possible, will actively use these