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Author: Simon Walker

Simon Walker studied modern history at Magdelen College, Oxford, graduating with first-class honours in 1979. When Walker began researching the retinue of John of Gaunt in 1980, 'bastard feudalism' had been the subject of debate for thirty-five years. A study of John of Gaunt's retinue could be expected to throw important, if not decisive, light on these problems. For not only was his the largest retinue in late medieval England, but for thirty years the duke himself had a dominant role in the domestic, military and diplomatic policy of England. In 1994, Michael Jones and Walker published for the Camden Society an edition of all the surviving private life indentures for peace and war apart from those of John of Gaunt and William, Lord Hastings. Walker's introduction to the volume reviewed the evolution of life indentures, the range of services they embraced, the regulation of obligations for service and reward, and the changing role of such indentures over the period 1278-1476. From these broad investigations into the balance of power between magnates and gentry, Walker returned to examine how, in individual cases, two men from different backgrounds built their careers on noble and royal patronage. Walker then turned to examine the retrospective view of the 1399 revolution in literate culture. He used case studies to build up a picture of collective mentalities among different social grades and vocational worlds, hoping ultimately to construct a new approach to the tensions and strength of the late medieval polity.

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G. L. Harriss

to the lives and voices of those below political society, those who served and suffered rather than those who ruled. He tried to read history from below because he wanted to see it whole. He used case studies to build up a picture of collective mentalities among different social grades and vocational worlds, hoping ultimately to construct a new approach to the tensions and strength of the late medieval polity. It was a challenging approach, for it meant working against the grain of the central sources, displaying a sensitivity to other incidental evidence, and

in Political culture in later medieval England
Ahdaf Soueif

? Jan Assmann, describing some critical moments in Egyptian history, could be analysing the period the U.S. and Israel are living through now: Periods of crisis, junctures where civilisation breaks with its own traditions, regularly engender discourses that illuminate the terms of reference within which that civilisation has been operating. Sometimes this illumination may result in profound changes to the prevailing semantic paradigms; sometimes those paradigms advance from more or less unconscious collectivementalities’ to the status of conscious ideologies

in ‘War on terror’
Jenna Townend

religio-political allegiances during the Civil Wars see Gerald E. Aylmer, ‘Collective Mentalities in Mid Seventeenth-Century England’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society , 5th series, 36 (1986), 1–25; Michael J. Braddick, God's Fury, England's Fire (Penguin: London, 2009), pp. 262–303; Andrew Hopper, Turncoats and Renegadoes: Changing Sides during the English Civil Wars (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 19–120. 6

in People and piety
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Sian Barber

dispositions ... those deep layers of collective mentality which extend more or less below the dimension of consciousness’ which may exist within society.13 Yet film is not a mirror and cannot ‘reflect’ society in this straightforward way. Other visual forms such as television have a greater sense of immediacy which allows them to respond much more quickly to specific events. For example, sitcoms or series recorded on a weekly basis, comedy shows or quiz programmes recorded on the day of transmission all have an opportunity to be topical and relevant. Music also has the

in Using film as a source
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Oral history and institutional photographs
Jesse Adams Stein

, these interviews begin to depict something of a collective mentality – filled with sentiments, contradictions, repeated phrases and so on – that make up the folkloric life of a factory. I am able to obtain factual details from existing records. For other stories told by interview participants, the focus need not be on specific historical accuracy or finding ‘facts’, but on more personal interpretations and values, thus exposing participants’ outlook on the world, for example their understanding of their identity and the role that gender might play in that conception

in Hot metal
Open Access (free)
The restructuring of work and production in the international political economy
Louise Amoore

. How do the social relations within our ideal-type firms produce and reproduce specific social practices, and how might these practices be Amoore_Global_06_Ch5 128 6/19/02, 2:07 PM The ‘contested’ firm 129 contested and transformed? For Cox, distinctive ‘orientations to action’ provide social groups with different ways of thinking about a problem: ‘Specific social groups tend to evolve a collective mentality, that is, a typical way of perceiving and interpreting the world that provides orientations to action for members of the group’ (Cox, 1987: 25). The

in Globalisation contested
Eric Richards

the short-run, as opposed to the deeper structural forces that affected the main motor of the income-differential which drove the larger process. Psychology of emigration There was a concomitant psychological change within this long story: aspiring migrants pushed change along in their energised state, eager to co-operate in the advance of industry and the expansion of settlement overseas. But many of them harboured backward-looking yearnings for the old rural world they had rejected – an atavistic tension in their collective mentalities, witnessed in both North

in The genesis of international mass migration
Sheep and people in the Welsh uplands
William Welstead

: Sheep are naturally flocking animals, and some sheep, like the Welsh Mountain for example, have a very strong flocking instinct. To be a part of a flock, is not only to belong to something bigger than your own individual self, but to be a part of something that has a collective mentality; something that protects the individual from an outside threat by being one in a whole of many faces. (130) Flocking together is an evolutionary stable strategy for herbivores that are exposed to

in Writing on sheep
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The Armistice and depictions of victimhood in German women’s art, 1918–24
Claudia Siebrecht

Armistice in German women’s art women also found it difficult to reconcile ongoing civilian suffering with a lost war. Economic and military demobilisation brought additional hardship and, according to Greg Eghigian, produced a collective mentality of resentment as the German people translated their wartime losses and sacrifices into entitlements. As these were only partially met by the struggling new state, Eghigian argues, many Germans felt betrayed, saw their sense of national belonging undermined and became susceptible to radical politics.6 Yet while female

in The silent morning