Reorganizing leprosy care, 1890– 1900

142 6 Towards a modern colonial state: reorganizing leprosy care, 1890–​1900 The death of Father Damien in the Kulawao leprosy settlement on the Hawaiian island of Molokai in 1889 spread fears of leprosy as an ‘imperial danger’ across the world. Once again, the international medical community was convinced of leprosy’s contagiousness and considered the advisability of compulsory segregation. These developments occurred during a reorganization of leprosy care in Suriname in the 1890s. However, this reorganization had a dynamic of its own tied to the heritage of

in Leprosy and colonialism

In our discussion on livestock until now, we have looked mostly at the nature of the colonial state, while touching briefly upon the reactions of various indigenous sections to government policies. In the present chapter, we will look much more closely at indigenous reactions to government policies, especially in the context of famine relief. These

in Beastly encounters of the Raj

several subjects like horse breeding were examined and implemented by the colonial state. It will also show that the semantics used for discussions around land settlement – undoubtedly the most important economic measure during early colonial rule – insinuated itself into debates on other subjects, shaping and forming them in various ways. There were parallels between land

in Beastly encounters of the Raj
Livelihoods, livestock and veterinary health in North India, 1790–1920

The question of cattle has been ignored not just by scholars working on agrarian conditions, but also by historians of medicine in India. This book is the first full-length monograph that examines the history of colonial medicine in India from the perspective of veterinary health. It not only fills this gap, but also provides fresh perspectives and insights that might challenge existing arguments. The book explores a range of themes such as famines, urbanisation, middle-class attitudes, caste formations etc. One of the most striking features of veterinary administration was its preoccupation with the health of horses and military animals until the end of the nineteenth century. Examining veterinary records, it becomes evident that colonial officials were much less imbued with the 'white man's burden' when it came to preserving indigenous cattle stock. The book shows that the question of finances could influence areas such as laboratory research, as is evident in the operations of the Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory. In its account on famines and cattle mortality, it highlights the meagreness and ineffectiveness of relief measures. The book then examines the question of caste identities, especially that of the Chamars (popularly known as leatherworkers). It also explores the process whereby stereotypes regarding caste groups were formed, inspecting how they came to be crystallised over time. A central concern of the book is to study the nature, priorities, and guiding principles of the colonial state. Finally, the book adopts a long-term perspective, choosing to study a rather long chronological period.

The Radcliffe boundary commission and the partition of Punjab

This book is the first full-length study of the 1947 drawing of the Indo-Pakistani boundary in Punjab. It uses the Radcliffe commission, headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe , as a window onto the decolonisation and independence of India and Pakistan. Examining the competing interests that influenced the actions of the various major players, the book highlights British efforts to maintain a grip on India even as the decolonisation process spun out of control. It examines the nature of power relationships within the colonial state, with a focus on the often-veiled exertion of British colonial power. With conflict between Hindus , Muslims and Sikhs reaching unprecedented levels in the mid-1940s , British leaders felt compelled to move towards decolonization. The partition was to be perceived as a South Asian undertaking, with British officials acting only as steady and impartial guides. Radcliffe's use of administrative boundaries reinforced the impact of imperial rule. The boundaries that Radcliffe defined turned out to be restless divisions, and in both the 1965 and 1971 wars India and Pakistan battled over their Punjabi border. After the final boundary, known as the 'Radcliffe award', was announced, all sides complained that Radcliffe had not taken the right 'other factors' into account. Radcliffe's loyalty to British interests is key to understanding his work in 1947. Drawing on extensive archival research in India, Pakistan and Britain, combined with innovative use of cartographic sources, the book paints a vivid picture of both the partition process and the Radcliffe line's impact on Punjab.

Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

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for by a survey of a number of exciting new themes. The wide-ranging nature of this work is, however, extremely useful in several ways. It allows us, for instance, to reach interesting conclusions regarding the nature of the colonial state. One of the conclusions that emerges clearly from this work is that, for the colonial state, the question of military welfare was of central importance throughout the

in Beastly encounters of the Raj
Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika

contracted health providers, by the mid-1940s missions became formal partners in the delivery of healthcare. In return for accepting greater government oversight of mission facilities and a requirement to meet state-set standards and targets, missionary medicine was to be financially supported by the colonial state and granted privileged access to policy-making and policy-setting structures. As Greenwood notes

in Beyond the state
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little effort has been devoted towards exploring this link between cattle and the agrarian landscape any further. What lies behind this curious omission of a subject that not only has the potential to provide an insight into rural life, but also into the nature of the colonial state in India? The answer might lie partly in the recent trends in historical writing which, at least in South Asia, seem to have

in Beastly encounters of the Raj
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control.6 By 1790, compulsory segregation polices for leprosy sufferers were in place. These policies continued long after the abolition of slavery in Suriname in 1863, and after the end of direct Dutch colonial rule in 1950.7 After the emancipation of the slaves, the social and cultural heritage of slavery continued to exercise an influence on the history of leprosy. The legacy of leprosy control and the slave society’s fear of the disease later affected how leprosy was viewed and addressed in the modernizing colonial state. This legacy continued in spite of the

in Leprosy and colonialism