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Imperialism, Politics and Society

In the twenty years between the end of the First World War and the start of the Second, the French empire reached its greatest physical extent. At the end of the First World War, the priority of the French political community was to consolidate and expand the French empire for, inter alia, industrial mobilisation and global competition for strategic resources. The book revisits debates over 'associationism' and 'assimilationism' in French colonial administration in Morocco and Indochina, and discusses the Jonnart Law in Algeria and the role of tribal elites in the West African colonies. On the economy front, the empire was tied to France's monetary system, and most colonies were reliant on the French market. The book highlights three generic socio-economic issues that affected all strata of colonial society: taxation and labour supply, and urban development with regard to North Africa. Women in the inter-war empire were systematically marginalised, and gender was as important as colour and creed in determining the educational opportunities open to children in the empire. With imperialist geographical societies and missionary groups promoting France's colonial connection, cinema films and the popular press brought popular imperialism into the mass media age. The book discusses the four rebellions that shook the French empire during the inter-war years: the Rif War of Morocco, the Syrian revolt, the Yen Bay mutiny in Indochina, and the Kongo Wara. It also traces the origins of decolonisation in the rise of colonial nationalism and anti-colonial movements.

African participation in the production of colonial knowledge in French West Africa, 1910–1950
Jean-Hervé Jezequel

majority of authors were local schoolmasters trained at the prestigious Ecole Normale William Ponty in Senegal. 2 Only a handful of these authors were officially recognized as such by either the colonial administration or the scholarly community. Thus while a few actually had careers as researchers, for the vast majority their ethnographic investigations boiled down to a few pages published in a local

in Ordering Africa
Florence Mok

elected member of the Council and the founder of the Reform Club, which advocated the setting up of democratically elected colonial institutions, Bernacchi also believed that more Chinese-speaking people could serve the colonial administration if Chinese became the official language. In 1965, another elected Urban Councillor, Henry Hung-lick Hu demanded equality between the English and Chinese languages. As the Vice

in Covert colonialism
Lyla Latif

Introduction Alongside the local, including religious, forms of taxation that existed in the territories that came to be colonised by Europeans, 1 imperial authorities often also imposed their own fiscal order upon colonial populations. This was aimed at paying for the administrative costs of the colony. 2 Colonial tax systems were created to respond to the fiscal realities of the colonies. Governing a colony was costly and British bureaucrats encouraged their colonial administration

in Imperial Inequalities
Billy Frank

development and colonial administration in British Africa during the Second World War. In particular, it demonstrates the expatriate business community’s disaffection with the British record of economic development and a complete lack of faith in the Colonial Office’s ability to forge development policy without the aid of the business community. These essays made numerous proposals

in Developing Africa
Maryinez Lyons

the Belgian colonial administration fought on these two fronts. The predominantly military administration of the Congo Free State, which was only gradually altered after Leopold’s state became a Belgian colony in 1908, quite naturally conceptualised the battle against sleeping sickness as a military campaign, la lutte . Sleeping sickness, the foe, had to be isolated, cordoned off, contained

in Imperial medicine and indigenous societies
The 1921 Hajj of Muhammadu Dikko, Emir of Katsina
Matthew M. Heaton

played in helping to shape colonial attitudes toward pilgrimage control. Dikko’s Hajj has been mentioned in passing by other scholars, but never has it been examined in detail. 1 Moses Ochonu has provided the most thorough explication of Dikko’s journey, though he focuses exclusively on the Emir’s time in England. 2 All of these works rightly recognise the colonial administration’s

in Decolonising the Hajj
Martin Thomas

colonial administrations to maintain a show of normality, that pillar had collapsed. The French supreme commander, General Maurice Gamelin, was made the scapegoat for the German breakthrough and was dismissed in disgrace at the height of the battle on 19 May. His replacement and erstwhile colleague, General Maxime Weygand, failed to hold his eponymously named defensive line along the Somme. 2 There was to be

in The French empire at war 1940–45
Uyilawa Usuanlele

came to be tied to the indirect system of rule and development ‘along native lines’ policy that was adopted by various colonial administrations. 1 The introduction of colonial development policies from the late 1920s, particularly the Colonial Development and Welfare Act (CDWA) of 1940 which had a welfare component, is said to have had a beneficial impact on education in Africa

in Developing Africa
Martin Thomas

The distinctive nature of French colonial administration, and its theoretical basis in republican thought is important, whether judged by the volume of official writings on the subject, or in terms of policy outcomes in the colonies. This chapter revisits debates over ‘associationism’ and ‘assimilationism’ in French colonial administration. 1

in The French empire between the wars