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Lord Leverhulme, soap and civilization
Author: Brian Lewis

This book is an unorthodox biography of William Hesketh Lever, 1st Lord Leverhulme (1851-1925), the founder of the Lever Brothers' Sunlight Soap empire. The most frequently recurring comparison during his life and at his death, however, was with Napoleon. What the author finds most fascinating about him is that he unites within one person so many intriguing developments of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The book first sketches out his life, the rise and triumph of his business, and explores his homes, his gardens and his collections. It contains essays on Lever in the context of the history of advertising, of factory paternalism, town planning, the Garden City movement and their ramifications across the twentieth century, and of colonial encounters. Lever had worked hard at opening agencies and selling his soap abroad since 1888. But if import drives proved unsatisfactory, logic dictated that soap should be manufactured and sold locally, both to reduce the price by vaulting tariff barriers on imports and to cater for idiosyncratic local tastes. As D. K. Fieldhouse points out, Lever Brothers was one of the first generation of capitalist concerns to manufacture in a number of countries. The company opened or started building factories in America, Switzerland, Canada, Australia and Germany in the late 1890s. It then spread to most western European countries and the other white settler colonies of the empire, as well as more tentatively to Asia and Africa.

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Memory and history in settler colonialism
Annie E. Coombes

historical factor which has ultimately shaped the cultural and political character of the new nations, mediating in highly significant ways their shared colonial roots/routes. The term ‘settler’ has about it a deceptively benign and domesticated ring which masks the violence of colonial encounters that produced and perpetrated consistently discriminatory and genocidal regimes against the indigenous peoples of these regions. In each of these countries the communities which were transformed, displaced and marginalised and the

in Rethinking settler colonialism
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Indigenous histories, settler colonies and Queen Victoria
Maria Nugent and Sarah Carter

– Queen Victoria in response to the colonial encounter. 3 It explores the multivalent ways in which Indigenous people in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa engaged – or sought to engage – Queen Victoria in their lives and struggles, including by incorporating her into their intellectual thought, political rhetoric, and narrative traditions. On the flipside, so to speak, the collection also considers the ways in which

in Mistress of everything
Violence, masculinity, and the colonial project in Derricke’s Image of Irelande
John Soderberg

Introduction A fundamental insight of recent scholarship on John Derricke’s Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne is that, rather than being simply a justification of conquest, the poem and accompanying woodcut illustrations are fully entangled in the contradictions and anxieties of Elizabethan Ireland and colonial encounters more generally. 1 Colonial powers often imagine indigenous people as victims of unbridled lust and perpetrators of reckless violence. Likewise, colonial powers

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
European and African narrative writing of the interwar period
Martina Kopf

from Africa are not the first place, then, where one would start researching the history of development. Suppose that we put on a particular set of glasses and look at colonial fiction with a conceptual history of development in mind. What would we see? Can we read its traces in and through the imagination and narratives that both shaped and reflected the colonial encounter of Africans and

in Developing Africa
Power, ritual and knowledge
Christopher Prior

the colonial encounter, but the result of a particular metropolitan mentality. Military officials were both more inclined to rely upon force and the use of prestige, and more at ease with their not knowing everything about those they governed, than civilian officials. Changes in the type of official recruited injected a new sense of urgency into the knowledge-gathering enterprise. Whilst such

in Exporting empire
Brian Lewis

his business, and explores his homes, his gardens and his collections. Chapters two to four contain essays on Lever in the context of the history of advertising (chapter two), of factory paternalism and town planning (chapter three) and of colonial encounters (chapter four). The concluding chapter resumes something of the narrative and summary format and looks at Lever’s extraordinary activity in his final years. William, Mr Lever, Sir William, Lord Leverhulme of Bolton le Moors, Viscount Leverhulme of the Western Isles, the Chairman, the Chief, the Founder, the Old

in ‘So clean’
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Exile and nostalgia in the writing of Doris Lessing
Susan Watkins

Doris Lessing’s key novels of the period 1945–60 examine the years leading up to the Second World War and the early to middle years of the war itself. Like Lessing, her heroines, Mary Turner and Martha Quest, grow up in a British colony in Africa in this period. The umbrella title of the five-volume novel sequence focusing on Martha is Children of Violence . This is indicative not just of Lessing’s preoccupation with the war, but also of her wider analysis of its connection with the violence of the colonial encounter. The sharpest irony

in Doris Lessing
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James Tod’s role in knowledge exchanges with the Rajputs
Florence D’Souza

with the need to define colonial encounters within the bounds of a specific historical geographic locality. Homi Bhabha’s work, in particular, has foregrounded the inherent instability of colonial discourse when enunciated within the geographical space of colonialism. His essay ‘Signs taken for wonders’, for example, argues that colonial discourse is

in Knowledge, mediation and empire
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Author: Susan Watkins

This study examines the writing career of the respected and prolific novelist Doris Lessing, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2007 and who has recently published what she has announced will be her final novel. Whereas earlier assessments have focused on Lessing's relationship with feminism and the impact of her 1962 novel, The Golden Notebook, this book argues that Lessing's writing was formed by her experiences of the colonial encounter. It makes use of postcolonial theory and criticism to examine Lessing's continued interest in ideas of nation, empire, gender and race, and the connections between them, looking at the entire range of her writing, including her most recent fiction and non-fiction, which have been comparatively neglected.