We live in an age in which advertising is part of the fabric of our lives. Advertising in its modern form largely has its origins in the later nineteenth century. This book is the first to provide a historical survey of images of black people in advertising during the colonial period. It highlights the way in which racist representations continually developed and shifted throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, depending on the particular political and economic interests of the producers of these images. The book analyses the various conflicting, and changing ideologies of colonialism and racism in British advertising, revealing reveal the purposes to which these images of dehumanisation and exploitation were employed. The first part deals with images of Africa, the second deals with images of black people in the West, and the third considers questions relating to issues about images and social representations in general. The Eurocentric image of the 'savage' and 'heathen', the period of slavery, European exploration and missionary activity, as well as the colonisation of Africa in the nineteenth century are explored. Representations of the servant, the entertainer, and the exotic man or woman with a rampant sexuality are also presented. The key strategy with which images of black people from the colonial period have been considered is that of stereotyping. The material interests of soap manufacturers, cocoa manufacturers, tea advertising, and tobacco advertising are discussed. The book explains the four particular types of imagery dominate corporate advertising during the 1950s and early 1960s.
Film in Korea has always been under governmental censorship. This book examines the ways in which Korean film reveals the ideological orientation of the society in which it is created and circulated. It examines the social and political milieu in which the Korean film industry developed from its beginning during the Japanese colonial period to its bifurcation into South and North Korean cinemas. The book presents a critical analysis of the selected films, which were all made between 1960 and 1990. It discusses the cultural identity of contemporary Koreans by analysing five films based on a popular traditional folk tale, Ch'unhyangjŏn. Three of the five films were made in South Korea: Shin Sangok's Song Ch'unhyang, Pak T'ae-wŏn's The Tale of Song Ch'unhyang and Han Sanghun's SongCh'unhyang. The significance of gender and class issues in Ch'unhyangjŏn can be glimpsed through the three variants of the film title. The book then examines the notion of nationhood held by contemporary Koreans from two interrelated perspectives, political and cultural. It explores the films in relation to the conflicting ideological orientations of North and South Korea. In the North Korean films, anti-imperialism constitutes the core of their definition of nationhood. Class is one of the foremost factors in the formation of cultural identities of contemporary Koreans living as a divided nation. The book discusses six films in this context: The Untrodden Path, The Brigade Commander's Former Superior, Bellflower, A Nice Windy Day, Kuro Arirang and Black Republic.
internal to broader
colonial agendas. However, collegial awareness by most of these
colonial-aligned women educators was never strong and they were mostly
not prescient as to how their daily work might be shaping the colonial
domain in India.
These women were powerfully directed by, and themselves
directed, various networks that ebbed and flowed during the colonialperiod. The
One of the most distinctive traits of
Korean film is its strong political nature. Since its introduction in 1903,
film in Korea has always been under governmental censorship. During the
Japanese colonialperiod (1910–45), the government severely suppressed
those films that would inspire anti-colonial sentiments among the Korean
audience. On the other hand, the colonial government employed film as a
establishment of European toeholds on the continent. Although largely
a byproduct of the Age of Discovery, the creation of coastal European
enclaves as way stations to the east and then later to facilitate trade and
commerce between Europe and Africa opened the door to a new era in
relations between the two continents. Central to this relationship were
notions of security and, more to the point, externally imposed perceptions of security that would come to define European-African relations
well into the twentieth century.
While the colonialperiod in Africa has customarily
Contesting veterinary knowledge in a pastoral community
improve, rather than merely to control.
Now, as then, these shifts take place within a field of unequal power
relations between state and pastoralists, to which differential access
to veterinary resources contributes substantially.
During and after the colonialperiod, Western medical
practitioners received government support in their attempts to redefine
disease and its treatment, not only because disease
realities dictated that policing remained predominantly a paramilitary
activity throughout the whole of the colonialperiod.
Ongins of the police
The locally raised militia and
detachments of the West India Regiment (WIR) stationed on the Gold Coast
were regarded by both London and local administrators as unfitted for
general police purposes. In 1845 the Secretary of State favoured the
overseas activities, the proto-colonialperiod may be generalized as c . 1450–1650. The ‘planting’ of English colonists in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries is recognized as an important step in English colonialism and a turning point in Irish history, but twentieth-century politics and policies discouraged its study. 2 The colonist in Irish nationalist history was no more than a ‘predatory Protestant’. 3 After recent revisionist work by historians, however, such publications as The Illustrated Archaeology of Ireland have recognized the significance
to put into motion the deracialisation and democratisation of hospital spaces together with improving working conditions, they still faced numerous challenges in the first decade of independence. As in the colonialperiod, high numbers of patients and inadequate resources hampered the effective provision of services to the majority.
The problems affecting hospitals and, by extension, nurses in the post-colonial era took a significant turn at the very beginning of the second decade of independence. Two important issues affected nurses’ everyday work in hospitals
the time of separation and self-government in 1859 the convict days
were past. The government of the colony for the remainder of the
colonialperiod passed to the hands of a semi-autonomous parliament
based in Brisbane, in the very south-east of this extensive colony
of 667,000 square miles, with 3,200 miles of coastline.
Queensland differed from most of the other colonies in