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Abstract only
Leslie C. Green

Historical background In ancient times, as evidenced by the Laws of Manu, the Old Testament or the writings of Kautilya or San Tzu, there was no attempt to identify those who were entitled to be treated as combatants. There was merely a description of what was regarded as proper conduct by those engaged in hostilities. During feudal times

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Johanna Söderström

an important backdrop to the rest of the book, particularly in relation to any similarities in the political lives of the former combatants. First, Namibia. The conflict and war there were long. After the First World War, Namibia (then South West Africa) had been administered by South Africa, and then after the Second World War South Africa implemented apartheid rule in Namibia. There was resistance to South African rule, due in part to the system of migrant labor, and in April 1960 exiled resistance leaders (including Sam Nujoma) established

in Living politics after war
The campaign for state reform, 1934
Chris Millington

•  3  • Building a combatants’ republic: The campaign for state reform, 1934 In June 1934, police in Lille reported on the state of public opinion. Generally, the public was favourably disposed toward the new government but a nagging fear of further violence remained. Bloodshed in Paris in February had been followed by growing leaguer and left-wing agitation on the streets of France. The ‘atmosphere of battle’ had not yet dissipated. In particular, though, the lillois police commented on the public’s fear that the veterans could again take violent if not

in From victory to Vichy
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

conflicts, which were kept in check by the superpowers, making the combatants accessible, at least in theory, to humanitarian efforts. ‘Civilians are not simply the victims of conflicts, they are the very target of conflicts; this is a significant change, at least with regard to the twentieth century ’, the director of operations for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said in 1999 ( Tauxe, 1999 ; emphasis added). With the launch of the ‘War on Terror

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Walter Bruyère-Ostells

Mercenaries are fighters who operate under special conditions. Their presence, as shadow combatants, often tends to exacerbate the violence of their enemies. That’s why the analysis focuses on the singularity of the relationship to death and ‘procedures’ concerning the corpses of their fallen comrades. As a fighter identified and engaged in landlocked areas, the mercenary’s corpse is treated according to material constraints pertaining in the 1960s. After violence on their body, and evolution towards the secret war, mercenaries favour the repatriation of the body or its disappearance. These new, painful conditions for comrades and families give birth to a collective memory fostered by commemorations.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

to think about whether those loans were apt. As it is not my aim to single out any particular colleague or media outlet, I will use a few of my own errors and questions by way of example. One of the certainties and obvious facts I took with me during my early investigations in the Congo was this: that there was a distinction between civilians and combatants. My reasoning went more or less as follows: ‘Once I’m there, I’ll start with an article on civilian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editors’ Introduction
Marc Le Pape and Michaël Neuman

cooperation) between them, and between some of the questions they are asking – for example, questions about the modalities of humanitarian aid; about how, and under what conditions, studies are conducted; about the roles and capacities required of people who serve as intermediaries between the investigators (analysts and practitioners) and the subjects of – or local actors in – conflicts (e.g. current members of armed groups, former combatants, citizen activists and movement spokespeople); about gathering and evaluating witness accounts; and about how difficult it is to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada, and Róisín Read

. UN Security Council ( 2019 ), ‘ Aid Operations under Increasing Threat as State, Non-State Combatants Ignore International Law, Humanitarian Affairs Chief Warns ’, Security Council, SC/13760, 8499th Meeting (PM) .

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Hakim Khaldi

the chronically ill in an area where the full spectrum of combatants were active: the Free Syrian Army (FSA), Jabhat Nosra (JAN), Ahrar Sham (AS), the People’s Protection Units (YPG) and ISIL. It is usual for MSF to negotiate with any armed groups present in the region in which it wants to operate, whatever their legal status, in order to gain access to the areas under their control and ensure the security of MSF’s operations. These armed groups

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith

evidence that sexual violence against men and boys by combatants is more prevalent than sexual violence committed by family and community members and other civilians. A focus on combatants replicates problematic approaches to violence against women and girls: initial assumptions that the majority of perpetrators in conflict-affected settings were ‘men with guns’ informed policies and responses that did not appropriately address the more prevalent

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs