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scientifically tested. Finally, news outlets and NGOs need to commit to accurate reporting and campaigning. There can be a strong temptation for journalists and communication teams to provide exaggerated or sensationalist accounts. This content can come from a good place – it reflects a utilitarian ethic in which the outcome (more funds/awareness/action) is seen to justify the means (exaggeration or fabrication). But exaggerated content can create serious, long-term damage that far outweighs these short-term gains. It can make it harder for humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Tower houses and waterways

Tower houses created and sustained diverse economic networks. In particular, this was accomplished through siting on communication routes, especially water based, and interaction with transport networks. A significant proportion of transport and communication occurred via water in later medieval Ireland. Not only was this cheaper than land-based transport, but it helped navigate politically unstable territories, since protection and effort could focus on specific places. It was also a response to Ireland's topography, which in many

in The Irish tower house

3 Communication, love and death ‘In this world’, wrote Kenneth Burke, ‘communication is never an absolute’, before adding in parentheses that ‘only angels communicate absolutely’.1 ‘Since Augustine at least’, suggests John Durham Peters, ‘angels have been the epitome of perfect communication, a model of how we would talk if we had no obstructions’.2 The most extended topic of discussion in this chapter will be the representation of the often-troubled communication of two heterosexual romantic pairs from two classical Hollywood films: Only Angels Have Wings and

in Classical Hollywood cinema

3396 Producing globalisation 29/9/09 11:15 Page 9 1 Hegemonic discourse communication The aim of this chapter is to offer a theoretical framework for studying and understanding hegemonic discourses and their function and effects. It is suggested that the domination of a hegemonic discourse signifies a complex communication process that directly involves national discursive realities, domestic institutional arrangements and agents/subjects. Therefore what is under scrutiny in this chapter is this communication process itself, in order to illustrate what this

in Producing globalisation

5 Real-time communication 1848–1945 Electronic communications could greatly speed up the various processes of feedback and of control in police organisations. Their use therein was just one aspect of the way that in the nineteenth century they (in Dandeker’s words) ‘unified national populations across time-space’.1 This chapter will examine the ways that telegraph and telephone technology were adopted by police in the nineteenth century, noting how these technologies both fitted into existing practice and re-shaped it. These will also be shown in the context of

in Police control systems in Britain, 1775–1975
Working-class male leisure and ‘good’ citizenship between the wars

6 The era of mass communication: workingclass male leisure and ‘good’ citizenship between the wars M ass commercial leisure came of age between the wars. A visit to at least one mass commercial leisure venue, be it a football match, music hall or cinema, had by 1939 become an important weekend ritual for many working men.1 Since professional sport and the music hall had their foundations in Victorian society, contemporary observers tended to divert their critical gaze towards the new technological developments that could dispense ‘popular’ leisure to an

in Leisure, citizenship and working-class men in Britain, 1850–1945

 11 1 Systems and methods for political communication in post-​war Italy The ‘Press and Propaganda’ sections of the large mass membership parties It has long been thought that during Italy’s immediate post-​war period the systems in place for projecting party identities were rudimentary and amateurish; this was the almost unanimous view of advertising staff from the major Italian companies in 1953, when they were interviewed for a survey published in the newspaper La Notte during the general election campaign. ‘The parties’ campaigns are being run by amateurs

in Communism and anti-Communism in early Cold War Italy

7 Insurrection as anti-securitization communication People often think that insurrectionalism is a whole, made of concepts and theories frozen in time, in their “ideological” rigidity … Nothing is permanent over time. Women and men through their actions forge ideas. It’s not up to those three or four well-known comrades, with their books and articles, to show us the way, not even a matter of the long and inconclusive assemblies. It’s those unknown comrades with their practice of attack that push us forward, leading us to life. (RaiNews 24 2013) On canonization

in The politics of attack

10 Information and communication technologies and the role of consumers in innovation Leslie Haddon As a contribution to current discussions of the role of both actual consumers and representations of consumers in the innovation process, this chapter considers two empirical studies of the information and communication technology (ICT) industries. It asks: 1 To what extent, how and when are consumers (i.e. potential end users) considered or involved during the design of new products? 2 When consumers are actually involved in the process of innovation, what is the

in Innovation by demand

9 Advocating a radical change in policies and new models to secure freedom and efficiency in funding and communication of science1 Andrea Ballabeni and Davide Danovi A moving landscape Threats and obstructions to scientific freedom, fairness and efficiency are commonly perceived as surrounding the scientific world. However, bottlenecks can also occur from within the system itself as some of the current regulations and forces shaping research (referred to here as ‘science policies’) substantially decrease the freedom and motivation of scientists. Indeed

in The freedom of scientific research