Rational choice and communitypower structures
Keith Dowding, Patrick Dunleavy,
Desmond King and Helen Margetts
The communitypower debate had a focused interest in discovering who
the major power holders were, and how far power was dispersed, in different communities (Hunter 1953; Dahl 1961; Bachrach and Baratz 1970;
Polsby 1980; Domhoff 1983). Political theorists, rightly criticizing the
simple-minded use of power, formulated a conception of power that moved
ever further away from empirical demonstration. Consequently, urban
scholars became less interested
The lesson here for community engagement during emergencies is that no ‘one
size fits all’, that inflexible or top-down responses are not appropriate and
that community engagement requires the fundamental recognition that within
communitiespower and legitimacy are always contested resources.
Effective community engagement requires a dynamic awareness of history, context and
power that remains conscious of how legitimacy and authority
This book is based on a three-year international comparative study on poverty reduction and sustainability strategies . It provides evidence from twenty case studies around the world on the power and potential of community and higher education based scholars and activists working together in the co-creation of transformative knowledge. Opening with a theoretical overview of knowledge, democracy and action, the book is followed by analytical chapters providing lessons learned and capacity building, and on the theory and practice of community university research partnerships. It also includes lessons on models of evaluation, approaches to measuring the impact and an agenda for future research and policy recommendations. The book overviews the concept of engaged scholarship and then moves to focus on community-university research partnerships. It is based on a global empirical study of the role of community-university research partnerships within the context of poverty alleviation, the creation of sustainable societies and, broadly speaking, the Millennium Development Goals. The book frames the contribution of community-university research partnerships within a larger knowledge democracy framework, linking this practice to other spaces of knowledge democracy. These include the open access movement, new acceptance of the methods of community-based and participatory research and the call for cognitive justice or the need for epistemologies of the Global South. It takes a particular look at the variety of structures that have been created in the various universities and civil society research organizations to facilitate and enhance research partnerships.
This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen
science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth
age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within
environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists
have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging
in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics
has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of
science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living
with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary
contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American
hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental
controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,”
citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding
toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory
environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing,
witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for
seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of
engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of
critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will
also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the
book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues,
as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen
science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors
in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from
emerging scholars and community activists.
This book examines the impact that nostalgia has had on the Labour Party’s political development since 1951. In contrast to existing studies that have emphasised the role played by modernity, it argues that nostalgia has defined Labour’s identity and determined the party’s trajectory over time. It outlines how Labour, at both an elite and a grassroots level, has been and remains heavily influenced by a nostalgic commitment to an era of heroic male industrial working-class struggle. This commitment has hindered policy discussion, determined the form that the modernisation process has taken and shaped internal conflict and cohesion. More broadly, Labour’s emotional attachment to the past has made it difficult for the party to adjust to the socioeconomic changes that have taken place in Britain. In short, nostalgia has frequently left the party out of touch with the modern world. In this way, this book offers an assessment of Labour’s failures to adapt to the changing nature and demands of post-war Britain.
Karl Polanyi (1886–1964) returned to public discourse in the 1990s, when the Soviet Union imploded and globalization erupted. Best known for The Great Transformation, Polanyi’s wide-ranging thought anticipated twenty-first-century civilizational challenges of ecological collapse, social disintegration and international conflict, and warned that the unbridled domination of market capitalism would engender nationalist protective counter-movements. In Karl Polanyi and Twenty-First-Century Capitalism, Radhika Desai and Kari Polanyi Levitt bring together prominent and new thinkers in the field to extend the boundaries of our understanding of Polanyi's life and work. Kari Polanyi Levitt's opening essay situates Polanyi in the past century shaped by Keynes and Hayek, and explores how and why his ideas may shape the twenty-first century. Her analysis of his Bennington Lectures, which pre-dated and anticipated The Great Transformation, demonstrates how Central European his thought and chief concerns were. The next several contributions clarify, for the first time in Polanyi scholarship, the meaning of money as a fictitious commodity. Other contributions resolve difficulties in understanding the building blocks of Polanyi's thought: fictitious commodities, the double movement, the United States' exceptional development, the reality of society and socialism as freedom in a complex society. The volume culminates in explorations of how Polanyi has influenced, and can be used to develop, ideas in a number of fields, whether income inequality, world-systems theory or comparative political economy. Contributors: Fred Block, Michael Brie, Radhika Desai, Michael Hudson, Hannes Lacher, Kari Polanyi Levitt, Chikako Nakayama, Jamie Peck, Abraham Rotstein, Margaret Somers, Claus Thomasberger, Oscar Ugarteche Galarza.
Offline and online games, branding and humanitarianism at the Roskilde
Lene Bull Christiansen
Mette Fog Olwig
), Political Ecology of Tourism. Community, Power
and the Environment ( New
York : Routledge , 2016 ), pp. 108 – 28 .
Hildebrandt and Stadil, Company
See his website ( www.christianstadil.com .
Accessed 6 March
Lessons learned from community-driven participatory research and the
DAVIES & MAH 9781526137029 PRINT.indd 105
Environmental justice and participatory citizen science
Community-driven participatory research (CDPR) and the
Though the Title VI complaint was submitted in 2014, this work truly began in
the 1980s when CBOs, with members including authors of this chapter, began
to resist the rapid expansion of IHOs in low-income communities of color in
eastern NC. The Concerned Citizens of Tillery (CCT), NCEJN, and REACH
were among the first organizations to expose
will become the UK land frontier to the EU, a fact that has potentially huge implications for politics in Northern Ireland, where the border was for many years the physical and legal manifestation of partition and a driver of violent political conflict between the late 1960s and late 1990s, until the political institutions were established on the basis of cross-communitypower-sharing following the GFA in 1998. Thus the nature of the Irish border is crucial for the devolved institutions and the political stability of the whole island.
It has to be
As Crouch (1979) notes, social theory in the 1970s accorded increasing attention to the role of the state. Within
Europe, much of this centred on the Marxist tradition
(Table 8.2, column 1). However, within the United States,
while political science accorded little attention to developing a systematic social theory of the state, a few scholars
such as Robert Dahl explored the issue of communitypower.
Other leading political scientists argued that democratic