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A study in obsolete patriotism
Author: W.J. Reader

The Victorian private solider was a despised figure. Yet in the first sixteen months of the Great War two and a half million men from the UK and many more from the empire, flocked to the colours without any form of legal compulsion. This book is the result of reflection on one of the most extraordinary mass movements in history: the surge of volunteers into the British army during the first sixteen months of the Great War. The notion that compulsory service in arms was repugnant to British tradition was mistaken. The nation's general state of mind, system of values and set of attitudes derived largely from the upper middle class, which had emerged and become dominant during the nineteenth century. The book examines the phenomenon of 1914 and the views held by people of that class, since it was under their leadership that the country went to war. It discusses the general theoretical notions of the nature of war of two nineteenth-century thinkers: Karl von Clausewitz and Charles Darwin. By 1914 patriotism and imperialism were interdependent. The early Victorians directed their abundant political energies chiefly towards free trade and parliamentary reform. It was the Germans' own policy which jolted the British into unity, for the Cabinet and the nation were far from unanimously in favour of war until the Germans attacked Belgium. Upper-class intellectual culture was founded on the tradition of 'liberal education' at the greater public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge.

Abstract only
W.J. Reader

unpopular among the working classes. It might have been even more unpopular if people had known that as late as 1891 the Secretary of State for War, defining ‘the objects of our military organisation’, had placed at the head of his list: ‘The effective support of the civil power in all parts of the United Kingdom’. 39 Part of Childers’ object in writing The Riddle of the Sands was to put the case for compulsory service. ‘Is it not becoming patent’, he asks in the final sentence of the book, ‘that the time has come for

in 'At duty’s call'
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Daniel Owen Spence

; cultural, political and legal obstacles to naval amalgamation; and the effects of manpower shortages and compulsory service upon the Navy’s racial management. Chapter Five examines the influence of colonial development discourse on naval and imperial strategy in post-war East Africa; issues regarding ethnic recruitment and management, ethnic preferences, racial prejudice, indigenous customs, and pay; how

in Colonial naval culture and British imperialism, 1922–67
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Daniel Owen Spence

in Communism means by which they could ferment Internal Security problems within the Colony to an extent not possessed by previous Governments of CHINA. 114 Compulsory service The Commandant reported to the Colonial Secretariat in September 1949 that ‘it is the excellent local [Chinese] response that

in Colonial naval culture and British imperialism, 1922–67
Abstract only
Daniel Owen Spence

, it was illegal for protectorates and mandates until a new CNDA was passed in 1949. Even then, colonial governments reasserted their control over the local population by introducing compulsory service, most notably in Kenya and Hong Kong. This was fundamentally linked to racialised fears that elevating Africans and Chinese above their colonial status might undermine British

in Colonial naval culture and British imperialism, 1922–67
Jane Humphries

of support, were commanded to accept service at the rate of wages that had existed before the Black Death: the compulsory service clause. Secondly, reapers, mowers and other workmen or servants were forbidden to leave their masters within the term of their contracts, without reasonable cause or permission, and other masters were forbidden to eloign workers or employ runaways: the contract clause. Thirdly, nobody was to give or receive higher wages than were customary: the wages clause (Putnam, 1908). The provisions were intended to prevent workers from exploiting

in Making work more equal
Diana Cullell

Constitution (Article 9.2), which declared all Spaniards equal before the law and prohibited discrimination on the basis of birth, race, sex, religion, opinion or any other personal or social conditions. Other important landmarks in the development of women’s rights at the time include the legalisation of contraception in 1978, as the the Servicio Social de la Mujer (Social Service for Women), which became under Franco a compulsory service for women similar to the Francoist military service. The Social Service for Women, however, focused on housework and devoted itself to

in Spanish contemporary poetry
Andrekos Varnava

– an improvement for muleteers from his earlier offer to continue with the same wages. For the future Milne asked Clauson to consider three options: compulsory service, as suggested in the report by Lieutenant-General H.B. Lawson; 26 voluntary enlistment for the period of the war, thus muleteers would take the oath of allegiance as soldiers; and to continue the present system. Milne argued that the

in Serving the empire in the Great War
Edward M. Spiers

built. Like General Simmons, he feared that as soon as Britain became linked to the Continent, she would have to accept Continental risks and take out similar insurance, namely a large standing army based upon compulsory service. 57 Such fears could not be ignored. On 20 April 1883 a joint parliamentary select committee was convened under the chairmanship of Lord Lansdowne. 58 Having reviewed all the

in Engines for empire
Daniel Owen Spence

and so, unlike their askari counterparts, the KRNVR’s African personnel were left to defend the local waters around Kilindini. 171 It was later admitted that this ‘limitation of East African Naval effort’ had been ‘imposed by size of European population’, 172 which provided insufficient numbers of supervising officers. Compulsory Service was introduced to Kenya in early

in Colonial naval culture and British imperialism, 1922–67