Total war tends to create a situation that falls back on established social and cultural discourses and institutional arrangements at the same time that it provides the opportunity for a shifting and renegotiation of these arrangements. This book explores how the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) drew upon, and/or subverted cultural mythologies to make sense of their wartime service. It focuses on this renegotiation of gender and examines seven key themes implicit in this process. The first theme concerns the ways women's military organizations utilized traditional notions of genteel femininity and its accompanying nurturance, cheerfulness and devotion in their promise of service, yet went beyond the parameters of such cultural mythologies. The second focuses on the gendering of military heroism. The third theme addresses the context of female military service in terms of the preparation women received, the opportunities they were given and the risks they took, and focuses on their coping behaviours. Theme four focuses specifically on women's transgression into the masculine terrain of driving and mechanics and shares the ways they developed skills and competencies previously off-limits for women. Such transgressions almost invariably led to women having to negotiate masculine authority and develop skills in autonomy, independence and assertiveness - the focus of theme five. The last two themes discussed in the book address the integration and consolidation of women's organizations as the war progressed and their service became indispensable.
more formidable fighting force. Blood ties provided the mental and physical endurance to fight on without succumbing to fear.
What Roper terms the ‘softer conception’ of manliness encouraged by comradeship was pre-existing in fraternal relationships. 11 Siblings gained succour from the practical comforts of serving with each other. Sharing a small dugout in a reserve trench, Francis and Sid Collings did ‘grand together’. 12 Volunteering on 10 September 1914, the brothers went out to the Ypres Salient in February 1915. Later that year, after a spell of sustained
Typically, when fraternal relations are mentioned in the context of war, the image conjured up is one of intermasculine bonding, embedded in the ideal of esprit de corps . The privileging of comradeship through the overarching trope of the ‘brotherhood of the trenches’ has overshadowed the presence and significance of real sibling bonds. 2 Brother–brother bonds have largely been ignored as a subject of historical and professional analysis. Often perceived as lesser than other sibling ties, brothers remain ‘an absent presence’. 3 Considerations of
Red love and the Americanization of Marx in the interwar years
Jesse F. Battan
the elimination of monogamy and possessiveness, private life would be reconstructed. Love would be freed from the bondage of the isolated pair and transformed into a socialized form of love. This would lead to a more communal or group-oriented experience of affection, what Kollontai referred to as “love-comradeship.” 37 As Schmalhausen argued, this would be “a greater human love, a radiant fellowship” that would integrate the individual into the social world and transform political and economic relationships through a generous sense of “fellowship and affection
account gives a sense that soldierly stoicism wavered when faced with a loved brotherly presence. The fraternal handshake described here, rather than an antiseptic formality, is laden with feeling. Percy’s description of their joint relief and affection emphasised the force of the siblings’ emotions. Writing about the changing norms of masculine tactile contact in the First World War, Santanu Das argues that the intimacy of trench warfare opened up a new world of tactile gentleness among serving men. Yet, his insightful analysis, with its focus on comradeship, excludes
preserve their overseas
commitments, enjoy comradeship based on shared experiences and promote a positive image of
Canada to government and public alike. They also capitalized on the opportunities offered by
Club meetings to make strategic political and commercial connections, since many of
Canada’s leading politicians and businessmen were dinner guests during visits to
links continued to be cultivated in the twentieth century. Marilyn Barber’s exploration
of the Fellowship of the Maple Leaf
Women Art Workers constitutes the first comprehensive history of the network of women who worked at the heart of the English Arts and Crafts movement from the 1870s to the 1930s. Challenging the long-standing assumption that the Arts and Crafts simply revolved around celebrated male designers like William Morris, this book instead offers a new social and cultural account of the movement, which simultaneously reveals the breadth of the imprint of women art workers upon the making of modern society. Thomas provides unprecedented insight into how women – working in fields such as woodwork, textiles, sculpture, painting, and metalwork – navigated new authoritative roles as ‘art workers’ by asserting expertise across a range of interconnected cultures so often considered in isolation: from the artistic to the professional, intellectual, entrepreneurial, and domestic. Through examination of newly discovered institutional archives and private papers, and a wide range of unstudied advertisements, letters, manuals, photographs, and calling cards, Women Art Workers elucidates the critical importance of the spaces around which women conceptualised alternative creative and professional lifestyles: guild halls, exhibitions, homes, studios, workshops, and the cityscape. Shattering the traditional periodisation of the movement as ‘Victorian’, this research reveals that the early twentieth century was a critical juncture at which women art workers became ever more confident in promoting their own vision of the Arts and Crafts. Shaped by their precarious gendered positions, they opened up the movement to a wider range of social backgrounds and interests, and redirected the movement’s radical potential into contemporary women-centred causes.
English radicalism has been a deep-rooted but minority tradition in the political culture since at least the seventeenth century. The central aim of this book is to examine, in historical and political context, a range of key events and individuals that exemplify English radicalism in the twentieth century. This analysis is preceded by defining precisely what has constituted this tradition; and by the main outline of the development of the tradition from the Civil War to the end of the nineteenth century. Three of the main currents of English radicalism in the twentieth century have been the labour movement, the women’s movement and the peace movement. These are discussed in some detail, as a framework for the detailed consideration of ten key representative figures of the tradition in the twentieth century: Bertrand Russell, Sylvia Pankhurst, Ellen Wilkinson, George Orwell, E.P. Thompson, Michael Foot, Joan Maynard, Stuart Hall, Tony Benn and Nicolas Walter. The question of ‘agency’ – of how to bring about radical change in a predominantly conservative society and culture – has been a fundamental issue for English radicals. It is argued that, in the twentieth century, many of the important achievements in progressive politics have taken place in and through extra-parliamentary movements, as well as through formal political parties and organisations – the Labour Party and other socialist organisations – and on occasion, through libertarian and anarchist politics. The final chapter considers the continuing relevance of this political tradition in the early twenty-first century, and reviews its challenges and prospects.
adolescent. I could not escape
from the comradeship of the trenches which had become a mental
internment camp, or should I say soldier’s home.22
Carrington believed an important emotional need had been met ‘by the
necessity to exert the whole of one’s strength in generous rivalry with
one’s friends’. Yet, musing later on his younger, war-time self, he also
wondered whether the boy he had ‘re-discovered’ through writing his
recollections was ‘anything more than a juvenile delinquent, whose characteristics were a longing for ganging-up with the other boys, a craving
In its contributions to the study of material social differences, queer theoretical writing has mostly assumed that any ideas which embody 'difference' are valuable. More than this, where it is invoked in contemporary theory, queerness is often imagined as synonymous with difference itself. This book uncovers an alternative history in queer cultural representation. Through engagement with works from a range of queer literary genres from across the long twentieth century – fin-de-siècle aestheticism, feminist speculative fiction, lesbian middle-brow writing, and the tradition of the stud file – the book elucidates a number of formal and thematic attachments to ideas that have been denigrated in queer theory for their embodiment of sameness: uselessness, normativity, reproduction and reductionism. Exploring attachments to these ideas in queer culture is also the occasion for a broader theoretical intervention: Same Old suggests, counterintuitively, that the aversion they inspire may be of a piece with how homosexuality has been denigrated in the modern West as a misguided orientation towards sameness. Combining queer cultural and literary history, sensitive close readings and detailed genealogies of theoretical concepts, Same Old encourages a fundamental rethinking of some of the defining positions in queer thought.