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A theoretical framework
Catherine Moury
,
Stella Ladi
,
Daniel Cardoso
, and
Angie Gago

Transactions in place in September 2012 (Van Der Heijden et al. , 2018 see Introduction). These circumstances forced some EU countries to respond to implicit and explicit conditionality. Implicit conditionality , which is ‘based on an implicit understanding of the stakes and sanctions involved, underlain by some measure of power asymmetry’ (Sacchi, 2018 , p. 1) was exercised, for example, by the European Central Bank when it warned Italy and Spain to stop buying government bonds unless they pursued reforms (Bosco and Verney, 2012 , p. 138; Lütz et

in Capitalising on constraint
Ingi Iusmen

2 European Union accession conditionality and human rights in Romania The Commission has no competence to monitor prisons in the Member States and then it starts becoming difficult if you start monitoring things externally for which you don’t have an internal mandate. And I know that Member State X can say ‘well Commission, why are you looking so strenuously into those prison conditions in these candidate countries when we are not really sure you should?’ (Commission official) Introduction The end of the Cold War afforded the former communist states with the

in Children’s rights, Eastern enlargement and the EU human rights regime
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

able to: calculate probabilities arising from simple chance experiments; use the concept of conditional probability in calculations; find whether events are independent; compute probabilities using some simple distribution

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

In this chapter we continue our study of random variables, explaining some features of their distributions and how to measure them. We shall also be concerned with the behaviour of two or more random variables on the same sample space: our treatment emphasises conditional expectation, a concept of great importance both for economic forecasting and for those branches of economic theory that are concerned with information. In the last section we

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

develop the basic method and give some important applications in economics, leaving the more advanced topics to Chapter 18 . When you have studied this chapter you will be able to : use Lagrange’s method to maximise and minimise functions subject to equation constraints; derive demand functions from utility functions, and conditional input

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

preceding chapter; we state the key theorem and give an example of how it is used. When you have studied Section 18.2 you will be able to : use the envelope theorem as a tool of comparative statics; derive conditional input demand functions from cost functions using Shephard’s lemma, and consumer demand functions from indirect

in Mathematics for Economists
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

This paper provides a critical analysis of post-humanitarianism with reference to adaptive design. At a time when precarity has become a global phenomenon, the design principle has sidelined the need for, or even the possibility of, political change. Rather than working to eliminate precarity, post-humanitarianism is implicated in its reproduction and governance. Central here is a historic change in how the human condition is understood. The rational Homo economicus of modernism has been replaced by progressive neoliberalism’s cognitively challenged and necessarily ignorant Homo inscius. Solidarity with the vulnerable has given way to conditional empathy. Rather than structural outcomes to be protected against, not only are humanitarian crises now seen as unavoidable, they have become positively developmental. Post-humanitarianism no longer provides material assistance – its aim is to change the behaviour of the precariat in order to optimise its social reproduction. Together with the construction of logistical mega-corridors, this process is part of late-capitalism’s incorporation of the vast informal economies of the global South. Building on progressive neoliberalism’s antipathy towards formal structures and professional standards, through a combination of behavioural economics, cognitive manipulation and smart technology, post-humanitarianism is actively involved in the elimination of the very power to resist.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
Bill Flinn

. It is evident from the Philippines example that an approach that prioritised Build Back Safer over other aspects of a good house would not have been at all appropriate in these Tacloban barangays. A superficial assessment by a recently arrived team of shelter practitioners might understandably see safety as the main priority; however, it is clear that the perception of the residents is quite different. A reflection of the humanitarian shelter sector’s somewhat myopic insistence on ‘safety’ being the single most important issue can be seen in the conditionality

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Digital Skills Training and the Systematic Exclusion of Refugees in Lebanon
Rabih Shibli
and
Sarah Kouzi

learning algorithms, expressed readiness to provide DST participants in one training centre with conditional access to micro job platforms once computers were whitelisted. Over a two-week period, the local experts at the centre whitelisted 500 IP addresses; however, the configurations failed as the state-owned telecommunication operator (OGERO) 4 continuously alternated IPs. The second hurdle manifested itself in the payment modalities, as refugees were not even allowed

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

possibility now existed permanently for sovereignty to become conditional on international normative approval lies at the root of much of the hubris of the last two decades (despite the fact that anchoring it all was the US, which refused steadfastly to qualify its sovereignty). Sovereignty is the foundational norm of ‘the political’ in the international system, and to demand sovereignty is overruled to achieve a normative end is a high-risk and usually doomed activity unless two conditions hold: one, a great power is willing to back the demand

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs