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Of the three conflict transformation programmes which Northern Ireland and the Border Counties have benefited from, two, the IFI and the Peace programmes, were specifically tailored for the region. Together with the INTERREG I, II and III(A) programmes, they have directly contributed over €3.25 billion to the region since 1986. While intricate

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development

In view of the theoretical confusion and associated definitional morass surrounding conflict transformation, it is necessary to preface this book with some conceptual clarification. This will enable an appropriate assessment of conflict transformation through social and economic development, specifically through the impacts of the tools under consideration

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development

determined by some of the transitions undergone by individuals and groups as indicated in the previous chapter. Involvement in conflict transformation work is also framed by the direction and views of the organisations and movements with which they are affiliated. Former prisoners and transformation Former prisoners have been at the core in the formulation of the new politics within

in Abandoning historical conflict?

loyalties, at many levels.’ 21 European praise The European Court of Auditors (ECA) and the European Commission published reports on the IFI in 2000 and 2001, with the ECA report highlighting a number of relevant findings in terms of conflict transformation, namely that ‘the IFI pioneered the joint management and delivery of programmes

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development

7 Everyday resistance to conflict resolution measures and opportunities for systemic conflict transformation Janel B. Galvanek and Hans J. Giessmann Introduction Initiatives and measures for conflict resolution are often met with resistance from various conflict stakeholders, often those groups and individuals whom the measures are designed to assist. Much of this resistance is labelled by the owners of such initiatives as ‘spoiler’ activity – seen as opposed to conflict resolution in general – and is therefore disregarded. However, not all resistance should be

in Cultures of governance and peace
Practice and policy lessons from Northern Ireland and the Border Counties

Transforming Conflict examines lessons learned from the Northern Ireland and Border Counties conflict transformation process through social and economic development and their consequent impacts and implications for practice and policymaking, with a range of functional recommendations produced for other regions emerging from and seeking to transform violent conflict. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive assessment of the region’s transformation activity, largely amongst grassroots actors, enabled by a number of specific funding programmes, namely the International Fund for Ireland, Peace I and II and INTERREG I, II and IIIA. These programmes have facilitated conflict transformation over more than two decades, presenting a case ripe for lesson sharing. In focusing on the politics of the socioeconomic activities that underpinned the elite negotiations of the peace process, key theoretical transformation concepts are firstly explored, followed by an examination of the social and economic context of Northern Ireland and the Border Counties. The three programmes and their impacts are then assessed before considering what policy lessons can be learned and what recommendations can be made for practice. This is underpinned by a range of semi-structured interviews and the author’s own experience as a project promoter through these programmes in the Border Counties for more than a decade.

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Politics and society in Northern Ireland over half a century

After three decades of violence, Northern Ireland has experienced unprecedented peace. It is now generally accepted that the peace accord which ended the Northern Ireland conflict, the 1998 Belfast Agreement, is an exemplar of this trend. This book examines the impact of the 1998 Agreement which halted the violence on the Northern Irish people. It covers changes in public opinion across all areas of society and politics, including elections, education, community relations and national identity. The surveys presented show that despite peace, Protestants and Catholics remain as deeply divided as ever. The book examines the development of the theory of consociationalism and how it has been woven into the intellectual debate about the nature of the Northern Ireland conflict. The role of religion in conflict transformation has emerged as an important issue in Northern Ireland. Ethnonationalism in Northern Ireland is fuelled by its multifaceted and complex nature. The constitutional position of Northern Ireland has been the topic of recurring debate since partition in 1920. The role of education in promoting social cohesion in post-conflict societies is often controversial. The book explores both the nature and extent of victimhood and the main perpetrators of the political violence. The key elements of a consociational approach include a grand coalition representing the main segments of society; proportionality in representation; community (segmental) autonomy; and mutual vetoes on key decisions. The main lesson of peace-making in Northern Ireland is that political reform has to be accompanied by social change across the society as a whole.

This assessment to date has delivered some stark insights: conflict is a costly experience with no quick-fix solutions to sustainable conflict transformation. Transforming a violent society into one that allows societal structures and levels to co-exist peacefully is a complex, multi-faceted and long-term task. It is worth noting that ‘social

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development
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A number of long-term conflict transformation funding programmes or tools have been operating in Northern Ireland and the Border Counties since 1986 under the guise of the International Fund for Ireland (IFI), the EU Special Support Programme for Peace and Reconciliation and the EU Programme for Peace and Reconciliation (Peace I, Peace II and Peace III), since 1994 and the

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development
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The significant decline in state and paramilitary violence in Northern Ireland has been part guided by politically motivated prisoners who have played a vital role in conflict transformation. Former prisoners have contributed to the development of alternative modes of thinking that have challenged once-dominant militarist ideologies. The actors involved in these discursive shifts

in Abandoning historical conflict?