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James McDermott

3 The matter of conscience Of the hundreds of thousands of men who appeared before the Tribunals, the relatively few who claimed exemption upon the ground of conscience have attracted the most, and the most subjective, attention. Modern empathy with pacifist principles has made almost mandatory the depiction of the conscientious objector as a victim of, and even martyr to, the thenprevailing spirit of militarism. By the same token, posterity has judged the Tribunals’ record almost exclusively upon their treatment of such men. Coloured by the early propaganda of

in British Military Service Tribunals, 1916–1918
Rachel Foxley

Chapter 4 . Religion, politics, and conscience I n the last chapter we saw how Lilburne’s writings created a new conception of citizenship, in the form of the ‘free-born Englishman’. Lilburne’s writings appealed powerfully to individual readers to consider themselves as free-born Englishmen and to act as such: to stand up for their franchises, liberties, immunities, and privileges as Englishmen, and if necessary to suffer for them as Lilburne himself did. This nexus of ideas was developed through Lilburne’s dense, iterative, passionate series of self

in The Levellers
Religion against the South African War
Greg Cuthbertson

A study of the ‘non-conformist conscience’ (which reflected the political life of free churches, such as the Congregational, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Unitarian and Quaker) and the South African War of 1899–1902 inevitably intersects with many historiographical debates. British imperial historians – in the wake of a renewed debate about

in The South African War reappraised
Marco Barducci

In his Preface to the Discourse , Ascham advised his readers that his argument in support of Parliament’s rule differed from the terms of the political debate of the early stages of the Civil Wars. By casting aside the preceding disputes over the prerogatives of king and Parliament, or the lawfulness of ruling titles, Ascham spoke to the subjects’ consciences, and

in Order and conflict
William Peraldus’s ethical voices
Richard Newhauser

the castle of the body in William Langland’s Piers Plowman , the five senses are presented as the sons of Inwit (conscience): ‘Sire Se-wel, and Sey-wel, and Sire Here-wel the hende, / Sire Werch-wel-with-thyn-hand, wight man of strengthe, / And Sire Godefray Go-wel – grete lordes alle’ (‘Sir See-Well; and Speak-Well; and Sir Hear-Well, the courteous; / Sir

in Medieval literary voices
Classical Hindu law and the ethics of conservatism
Donald R. Davis

Donald R. Davis , Jr . The classical Hindu law tradition is conservative, and an instance of conservatism. In this chapter, I draw comparisons between classical Hindu law and traditional Anglo-American conservatism about the topics of rules, ethics, and conscience. In searching for a language through which to express the Sanskrit categories and ideas found in Hindu jurisprudence, I have been repeatedly drawn to the assumptions, arguments, and aspirations of traditional conservatism. 1

in Rules and ethics
The parable of Dives and Lazarus
Mary Raschko

Examinations of social conscience 105 3 Examinations of social conscience: the parable of Dives and Lazarus And in as mychel as her state was diuers her in þis werlde, by als mychel is it dyuers in þat oþer werlde. (Pepysian Gospel Harmony, p. 64)1 While Middle English renditions of the Prodigal Son parable broadly encouraged penitential actions, the retellings highlighted in this chapter make more specific claims about the sins for which people should repent. The parable of the Rich Man (Dives) and Lazarus (Luke 16:19–31) features an alarming inversion of

in The politics of Middle English parables
Talal Al-Azem

Talal Al-Azem What is the place of conscience in a rule-oriented system of ethics and law? Like their peers in other rule-based moral traditions (as discussed in the Introduction ), jurisprudents of the pre-modern Muslim world grappled with how to square their conscience with existing ethical rules and the law. Until recently, however, we knew relatively little about how they thought about this issue and the various solutions they developed. The academic study of Islamic law

in Rules and ethics
Bernard Capp

). 4 Many households in early modern England, and throughout Europe, were strained by religious differences between husbands and wives, parents and children, employers and servants. And many of those affected faced a struggle of conscience to identify the morally and spiritually correct way forward, for on this issue there were two competing fathers. God the Father had bestowed divine authority on the biological father, so how was a tormented son or daughter to honour and obey both? This essay focuses on fathers and sons

in People and piety
Mary A. Blackstone

 160 9 Henry V and the interrogative conscience as a space for the performative negotiation of confessional conflict Mary A. Blackstone Despite the relative distance in time between Shakespeare’s England and the upheavals of earlier Reformation and Counter-​Reformation periods, persistent aftershocks of anxiety surrounding religious belief and allegiance continued to destabilize the bedrock of English society from the level of the court and members of the nobility down to parish churches and their clergy and even to the level of Shakespeare’s groundlings

in Forms of faith