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Towards a global synthesis
Richard H. Grove

penetration of a Western economic process beyond as well as within the colonial context. 2 This chapter is primarily concerned with the political economy of Western ecological systems, and the consequences of their extension to the colonial periphery, particularly in forms of forest conservation. However, it also seeks to underline the importance to the latter task of understanding the evolution of new forms of

in Imperialism and the natural world
Legislation and the international dimension
John M. MacKenzie

By the end of the century the hunting and natural history elites were beginning to sound a note of alarm. The combined ravages of overhunting and rinderpest had produced such a marked diminution of game that conservation measures seemed necessary. Pressure groups became active in

in The Empire of Nature
Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Open Access (free)
Face to face with the past
Author:

The ‘bog bodies’ of north-western Europe have captured the imagination of poets as much as archaeologists, confronting us with human remains where time has stopped – allowing us to come ‘face to face’ with individuals from the past. Their exceptional preservation allows us to examine unprecedented details of both their lives and deaths, making us reflect poignantly upon our own mortality. Yet this book argues that they must be resituated within a turbulent world of endemic violence and change, reinterpreting the latest Continental research and new discoveries in this light. The book features a ground-breaking ‘cold case’ forensic study of Worsley Man: Manchester Museum’s ‘bog head’ and brings the bogs to life through both natural history and folklore, as places that were rich, fertile, yet dangerous. Finally, it argues that these remains do not just pose practical conservation problems but philosophical dilemmas, compounded by the critical debate on if – and how – they should be displayed, with museum exemplars drawn from across the globe

Imperial power, both formal and informal, and research in the natural sciences were closely dependent in the nineteenth century. This book examines a portion of the mass-produced juvenile literature, focusing on the cluster of ideas connected with Britain's role in the maintenance of order and the spread of civilization. It discusses the political economy of Western ecological systems, and the consequences of their extension to the colonial periphery, particularly in forms of forest conservation. Progress and consumerism were major constituents of the consensus that helped stabilise the late Victorian society, but consumerism only works if it can deliver the goods. From 1842 onwards, almost all major episodes of coordinated popular resistance to colonial rule in India were preceded by phases of vigorous resistance to colonial forest control. By the late 1840s, a limited number of professional positions were available for geologists in British imperial service, but imperial geology had a longer pedigree. Modern imperialism or 'municipal imperialism' offers a broader framework for understanding the origins, long duration and persistent support for overseas expansion which transcended the rise and fall of cabinets or international realignments in the 1800s. Although medical scientists began to discern and control the microbiological causes of tropical ills after the mid-nineteenth century, the claims for climatic causation did not undergo a corresponding decline. Arthur Pearson's Pearson's Magazine was patriotic, militaristic and devoted to royalty. The book explores how science emerged as an important feature of the development policies of the Colonial Office (CO) of the colonial empire.

Abstract only
Bernadette Connaughton

indicates that many of these habitats do not reach a favourable status when measured against both international and legal obligations to protect biodiversity. Central to these commitments are the EU birds and habitats directives, whose implementation has given rise to the creation of a European-wide network of sites for habitat and species, called Natura 2000. The methodology undertaken to create Natura 2000 is through the designation of habitat conservation areas known as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs

in The implementation of environmental policy in Ireland
John M. MacKenzie

The international agreement of 1933 marked an important stage in the transformation of reserves into national parks. It was also a marker for the translation of African policies into Asia. The conservation movement gathered pace at a rather later date in Asia, for a number of reasons

in The Empire of Nature
Abstract only
Henry A. McGhie

British Ornithologists’ Club, while Rothschild and Hartert had their own journal, Novitates Zoologicae. Harry Witherby issued the journal British Birds from June 1907 to document sightings of unusual birds and discuss topics such as migration and conservation; the journal quickly became very successful (Anon., 1957; Ogilvie et al., 2007). Dresser continued to use a particularly old-fashioned publishing model – self-publishing books based (largely at least) on his own collection – but with great success. In 1907, Buturlin sent Dresser an article on new species and

in Henry Dresser and Victorian ornithology
David Larsson Heidenblad

Rivers be mothballed immediately ‘so that the nuclear power plants can demonstrate that there are concrete alternatives to hydroelectric power’. 3 The notion that nuclear power was environmentally friendly was well established in late 1960s Sweden. Ever since the 1950s, nature-conservation bodies had hoped that the new technology would put a stop to the continued exploitation of the great rivers of the north. By preserving untouched wilderness from the advance of civilization, these interest groups wanted to secure aesthetic natural

in The environmental turn in postwar Sweden
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

whether later prehistoric communities knew of the preservative properties of the bog itself and knowingly exploited it, to different ends. Another factor repeatedly cited by these authors to explain the phenomenon of preservation was the medicinal, ‘antiseptic’ power of bog water, referred to by Pitiscus of Oldenberg (1791, cited in van der Sanden 1996 : 19) as ‘the real quintessence’. In a prescient passage that anticipates modern modes of passive conservation, he suggests that bog bodies could be stored in peat water so that future generations might see what they

in Bog bodies