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Michael Mulqueen

generally, use the term ‘contingency planning’ (Author’s interviews; Smith 2004; Einav, Feigenberg, Weissman et al . 2004). It relates to both proactive and reactive security. NATO has defined contingency planning as: Plans which are developed for possible operations where the planning factors (e.g. scope, forces

in Re-evaluating Irish national security policy
Writing, politics, and culture in England, 1639– 89

Aesthetics of contingency provides an important reconsideration of seventeenth-century literature in light of new understandings of the English past. Emphasising the contingency of the political in revolutionary England and its extended aftermath, Matthew Augustine challenges prevailing literary histories plotted according to structural conflicts and teleological narrative. In their place, he offers an innovative account of imaginative and polemical writing, in an effort to view later seventeenth-century literature on its own terms: without certainty about the future, or indeed the recent past. In hewing to this premise, the familiar outline of the period – with red lines drawn at 1642, 1660, or 1688 – becomes suggestively blurred. For all of Milton’s prophetic gestures, for all of Dryden’s presumption to speak for, to epitomise his Age, writing from the later decades of the seventeenth century remained supremely responsive to uncertainty, to the tremors of civil conflict and to the enduring crises and contradictions of Stuart governance.

A study of major writings from the Personal Rule to the Glorious Revolution and beyond, this book also re-examines the material conditions of literature in this age. By carefully deciphering the multi-layered forces at work in acts of writing and reception, and with due consideration for the forms in which texts were cast, this book explores the complex nature of making meaning in and making meaning out of later Stuart England.

Godard as film critic, 1950–59
Douglas Morrey

. In the cinema, then, the question of whether the reality on display is essential or constructed , whether it is necessary or contingent , can be summed up with the following kind of childish logic: one says not ‘il faut filmer ça parce que c’est beau, mais: c’est beau parce que je l’ai filmé comme ça’ 11 (127). The problem of necessity and contingency is one of the oldest and most intractable

in Jean-Luc Godard
Bert Ingelaere

an assemblage. 3 I borrow this concept from the philosophers Deleuze and Guattari as they coined it in A Thousand Plateaus ( 2004 ). They introduce the concept of agencement that is generally translated as assemblage in English to capture the intricate interplay of agency and structure, contingency and structuration, change and organisation. 4 Important is the fact that ‘assemblages select elements from the milieus (the surroundings, the context, the mediums) in which the assemblages work’ ( Macgregor Wise, 2005 : 78). Therefore, it is needed to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lessons Learned from an Intervention by Médecins Sans Frontières
Maria Ximena Di Lollo, Elena Estrada Cocina, Francisco De Bartolome Gisbert, Raquel González Juarez, and Ana Garcia Mingo

staff workload and different levels of education and expertise, conducted training on IPC measures and assisted with the design of contingency plans and evaluation of facilities. MSF also donated personal protective equipment (PPE), and when supplies were unavailable, supported care home staff to develop alternative solutions. Advocacy. Throughout the intervention, MSF was lobbying the highest levels of authorities and wrote numerous letters, reports

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

measures and contingency plans for a possible evacuation or lockdown situation; a one- to two-hour awareness-raising session on security for all volunteers leaving on mission during their departure preparation; and, most importantly, a kidnapping risk-management policy. That policy was designed and put in place after two expatriates were abducted in Somalia in the fall of 2008. It required identifying the kidnapping risk in each intervention zone; a specific briefing for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

notions of legitimacy that are unable to respond to the fluidity of social dynamics during a crisis. Producing more or better rules of engagement will not resolve uncertainties, nor will the development of cultural taxonomies or overly defined concepts. The always negotiated nature of power is an essential feature of social life. Engagement is always a risk, and success in mobilisation requires an acceptance of contingencies and an ability to adapt to changing circumstances

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be Improved?
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell

applied to context analysis throughout a project cycle, including in planning stakeholder engagement and assessing risks to programming over different time periods. It can also have major uses in programme implementation, such as assessing risk in activity site selection, supporting access negotiations by improving understanding of actors, their interests and where humanitarian leverage exists or may be created, and using improved forecasting for contingency planning

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

forgotten to institutional memory, remain under-represented in subsequent Hine scholarship, and were essentially ‘lost’ in photographic archives. 2 I regard the lack of circulation as the result of a complex set of historical contingencies, competing ideologies, and agendas, that would ultimately see refugees visually displaced by domestic interests that included a redirection of focus onto local American social welfare and humanitarian issues. To begin, I present the ARC’s 1918 wartime use of Hine’s photographs in The Red Cross Magazine to explore the way refugees

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti

Education & Training , published online 29 March, doi: 10.1080/13636820.2020.1744691 . Tippens , J. A. ( 2017 ), ‘ Urban Congolese Refugees in Kenya: The Contingencies of Coping and Resilience in a Context Marked by Structural Vulnerability ’, Qualitative Health Research , 27 : 7 , 1090 – 1103

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs