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Marcel H. Van Herpen

Proposal #4: keep populist parties out of governments: a plea for a cordon sanitaire Should populist parties be invited to participate in coalition governments? This is, indeed, a burning question, and different answers are possible, depending on the expectation one has of the result. Would the participation of a populist party influence the other parties in the coalition and lead to a radicalization of a country’s policies? Or, on the contrary, would the participation of a populist party in a broader coalition with mainstream parties have a moderating

in The end of populism
Abstract only
Twenty proposals to defend liberal democracy

The populist wave which has submerged Europe and the United States in recent years seems unstoppable. But is it? The End of Populism offers answers and proposes concrete solutions to confront the rise of “illiberal democracy.” Drawing on years of research, the author develops a complete new ideal type of populism, which enables him to identify the basic problems. Deploying a wealth of social science evidence, he refutes the populist claim that democracy is a “demand side” phenomenon, and demonstrates that it is rather a “supply side” phenomenon. He argues that one can have "too much democracy” and shows how methods of direct democracy, such as popular initiatives, referendums, and open primaries, which pretend “to give the power back to the people,” have led to manipulation by populists and moneyed interests. Populist attacks on the judiciary, central banks, the media, and other independent agencies, instead of strengthening democracy, have rather undermined liberal democracy. The author formulates twenty original and bold proposals to fight populism and defend liberal democracy. These proposals include ways to bridge the gap between the people and the elites, fight corruption, improve political party funding, and initiate societal, educational, and macro-economic reforms to increase economic equality and alleviate the insecurity of the citizens.

Laurinda Abreu

designed to strip Carvalho e Melo of his powers. Seen purely in terms of epidemic control, the 1756 Measures were not innovative. As was the case in many other port cities throughout Europe, the line of defensive fortifications along the Portuguese coast acted as a cordon sanitaire that was relatively easy to bring into play. Protected by the early sixteenth-century Tower of Belém, the port of Belém near Lisbon and its westward extension in Paço d’Arcos, together with the lazaretto across the estuary in Trafaria, formed the physical space that materialised the Lisbon

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Maryinez Lyons

reorganisation, restructuring and control of African societies. Features of this front were the identification and mapping of infected and non-infected zones and the creation of a cordon sanitaire to protect mainly non-infected regions such as large portions of the northeast; isolation of infected individuals in one of the special lazarets, or isolation camps, located on the fringes of uninfected zones

in Imperial medicine and indigenous societies
Mallorca (Balearic Islands), 1820–70
Joana Maria Pujadas-Mora and Pere Salas-Vives

local cordon sanitaires, and their observation by the population, in the absence of an accepted effective sanitary alternative, prevailed over the restrictions to their use imposed by the liberal laws. This de facto situation was founded on a tacit consensus between the local authorities and the citizens in one part, and the central government delegates in the province, especially the civil governor, on the other. The main objective would have been 282 Power to overcome the conflicts created around this issue among the various authorities involved.7 For this study

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
An epidemiological 'iron curtain'?
Sabine Jesner

border of the Habsburg Monarchy in south-eastern Europe as the primary method of medical control over human movement and border crossing. The established cordon sanitaire functioned until the nineteenth century as an early-warning system, with the objective of containing infectious diseases. I argue that a significant motive for implementing intensified measures on medical grounds was linked with the Peace Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718 which formally ended the Austro–Turkish War (1716–1718). Six days after its ratification, a separate Commercial and Shipping Treaty

in Medicalising borders
Marcela Iacub and Vinay Swamy

Part I Constructing and demolishing the wall of modesty Wall: Anything that serves as a partition, barrier, or separation; an obstacle constituted by persons or things in order to oppose and resist Grand Dictionnaire Encyclopédique Larousse Great walls, such as the one built by the Chinese, have had the objective of protecting those who constructed them from the assaults of enemy troops. Other walls were built to protect from foreign diseases and were conceived of as quarantine lines (cordons sanitaires). We have sometimes raised walls so that residents do

in Through the keyhole
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Open Access (free)
Transgressing the cordon sanitaire: understanding the English Defence League as a social movement
Hilary Pilkington

Introduction Transgressing the cordon sanitaire: understanding the English Defence League as a social movement This book is political – but not by design. It is rendered so by its object of study (the English Defence League) and its context – the rise of a new ‘far right’1 and ‘populist radical right’ across Europe and, more recently, America. It argues that establishing an academic ‘cordon sanitaire’ (Mouffe, 2005: 72), in the form of typological and classificatory approaches that focus solely on the ideological dimensions of such movements and confine them to

in Loud and proud
Urška Bratož

, cordon sanitaire), but since it appeared to be useless in facing cholera, the anticontagionist position strengthened, inclining towards milder strategies of environmental and social reform. 34 At the time, when this ‘antique doctrine (…) had not been proven by epidemiological or experimental data’ (yet), 35 contagionists were regarded as obsolete, reactionary, conservative and even antisocial; on the other hand, anticontagionists’ opinions were considered more in line with the principles of the bourgeois and, as such, mercantile and socially responsible. 36 With

in Medicalising borders