Russia’s resonances in late Elizabethan England
Felicity Jane Stout

Chapter 5 A commonwealth counselled Russia’s resonances in late Elizabethan England That king that is not tied to the laws is a king of slaves. I have been in employments abroad. For the propriety of goods and of liberty, see the mischief of the contrary in other nations. In Muscovy one English mariner with a sword will beat five Muscovites that are likely to eat him. Sir Dudley Digges, Commons debates, 1628 Of the Russe Common Wealth presented the betrayal of God’s providence in Russia as a result of tyrannical government and false religion, rendering the

in Exploring Russia in the Elizabethan commonwealth
David Coast

Chapter 2 . Secrecy, counsel and ‘outward shows’ Introduction T he effectiveness of the mechanisms through which James controlled the expression of opinion, and particularly of print, have attracted considerable debate. Older accounts stressed the strength and oppressiveness of the censorship regime.1 This view has been challenged by Sheila Lambert, who has pointed to the gap between the theory and practice of censorship, suggesting that James and Charles were unable and often unwilling to impose strict controls.2 More recently, historians have presented a

in News and rumour in Jacobean England
Joanne Paul

Chapter 2 Thomas Elyot on counsel, kairos and freeing speech in Tudor England Joanne Paul W hat makes speech free? It is usually taken that speech is ‘free’ if it is not met with punishment from governing authorities.1 ‘Freedom of speech’ involves a right to speak without fear of governmental reprisal. A focus on the debates surrounding ‘liberty of speech’ in the Tudor period, however, leads us to another way of considering the ‘freedom’ of speech: that it is not the absence of punishment which makes speech free, but rather the choice to speak freely

in Freedom of speech, 1500–1850
Information, court politics and diplomacy, 1618–25
Author: David Coast

This study examines how political news was concealed, manipulated and distorted in late Jacobean England. Using a wide range of extraordinarily rich manuscript sources, it analyses how news was managed and interpreted during a period of acute political and religious conflict. It analyses how the flow of information to and from the King was managed by his secretaries of state and diplomats, and how the King prevented information about his policies from leaking in to the wider public sphere. It analyses the ‘outward shows’ James made to signal his intentions and mislead a variety of audiences, as well as they ways in which these ‘performances’ could backfire and undermine royal authority. It also examines the sceptical and often cynical reception of news, and the political significance of the rumours that circulated in court and country. It thereby contributes to a wider range of historical debates that reach across the politics and political culture of the reign and beyond. It advances new arguments about censorship, counsel, and the formation of policy; propaganda and royal image-making; political rumours and the relationship between elite and popular politics, as well as shedding new light on the nature and success of James I’s style of rule. In doing so, it aims to examine news as a source of influence and even power in Jacobean England.

Author: Tom Betteridge

This book is a study of the English Reformation as a poetic and political event. It examines the political, religious and poetic writings of the period 1520-1580, in relation to the effects of confessionalization on Tudor writing. The central argument of the book is that it is a mistake to understand this literature simply on the basis of the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism. Instead one needs to see Tudor culture as fractured between emerging confessional identities, Protestant and Catholic, and marked by a conflict between those who embraced the process of confessionalization and those who rejected it. Sir Richard Morrison's A Remedy for Sedition was part of the Henrician government's propaganda response to the Pilgrimage of Grace. Edwardian politicians and intellectuals theorized and lauded the idea of counsel in both practice and theory. The book discusses three themes reflected in Gardiner's 1554 sermon: the self, the social effects of Reformation, and the Marian approaches to the interpretation of texts. The Marian Reformation produced its own cultural poetics - which continued to have an influence on Tudor literature long after 1558. The decade following the successful suppression of the Northern Rebellion in 1570 was a difficult one for the Elizabethan regime and its supporters. An overview of Elizabethan poetics and politics explains the extent to which the culture of the period was a product of the political and poetic debates of the early years of the Queen's reign.

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Education, piety and politics in early modern England
Author: Gemma Allen

In mid-sixteenth-century England, many figures celebrated the achievements of the nation's few female humanists. This book is a study of five remarkable sixteenth-century women. It contextualizes the evidence of the sisters' reading, evaluates it against the prescription for both their male and female contemporaries, and discusses the role of the sisters themselves in directing their reading. Drawing particularly on the sisters' own writings, it demonstrates that the sisters' education extended far beyond that normally allowed for sixteenth-century women. The book challenges the view that women in this period were excluded from using their formal education to practical effect. The evidence of the Cooke sisters' political activities contributes to scholarship on later Tudor political culture. The Cooke sisters' classical learning allowed them opportunities with the written word, particularly in their activities as translators and poets. The book argues that the sisters were able to turn to their humanist education to provide them with strategies for bolstering their advice, particularly over issues of politics and religion, the most contentious areas for female counsel. It looks at the political agency demonstrated in Cooke sisters' correspondence by letters, demonstrating female detailed understanding of and contribution to issues central to Elizabethan politics. The contribution of the Cooke sisters provides another perspective on the key issues of Elizabethan diplomacy, the Queen's marriage and the political divisions of the 1590s. The book also offers a warning against the methodology of past research on the stereotype of the learned woman.

Genetics, pathology, and diversity in twentieth-century America

Is deafness a disability to be prevented or the uniting trait of a cultural community to be preserved? Combining the history of eugenics and genetics with deaf and disability history, this book traces how American heredity researchers moved from trying to eradicate deafness to embracing it as a valuable cultural diversity. It looks at how deafness came to be seen as a hereditary phenomenon in the first place, how eugenics became part of progressive reform at schools for the deaf, and what this meant for early genetic counselling. Not least, this is a story of how deaf people’s perspectives were pushed out of science, and how they gradually reemerged from the 1950s onwards in new cooperative projects between professionals and local signing deaf communities. It thus sheds light on the early history of culturally sensitive health care services for minorities in the US, and on the role of the psycho-sciences in developing a sociocultural minority model of deafness. For scholars and students of deaf and disability studies and history, as well as health care professionals and activists, this book offers new insight to changing ideas about medical ethics, reproductive rights, and the meaning of scientific progress. Finally, it shows how genetics came to be part of recent arguments about deafness as a form of biocultural diversity.

Female counsellors
Gemma Allen

Chapter 3 . ‘Haud inane est quod dico’: female counsellors This good Mistris K. you knowe, but yet this I also put yow in mind of; for though God have blessed you, yet you are but a weake woman, and have need (in the common frailty of man’s nature) to bee stirred up with exhortation.1 E dward Dering, the godly preacher, thus counselled Katherine Cooke Killigrew in a letter of February 1575. Katherine was one of Dering’s many female correspondents and his letters have been read to show a strong male religious counsellor offering guidance to a weak female

in The Cooke sisters
Collaborating for culturally sensitive counselling, 1970–1990
Marion Andrea Schmidt

In the early 1970s, geneticist Walter Nance counselled a deaf couple on their risk of having a deaf child. For Nance, this was a standard procedure. The couple’s reaction, however, made him question his approach and beliefs. ‘It is a sobering experience’, he recalled later, ‘to spend an hour communicating the facts of genetics to a deaf couple through an interpreter, only to be confronted by the question from the shy young bride, “What is wrong with being deaf?”’ 1 What, indeed, was wrong with it? If one believed in genetics as a science that served the

in Eradicating deafness?
Psychogenetic counselling at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1955–1969
Marion Andrea Schmidt

, especially for a group that had long been denied this very sociolinguistic identity. Analysing these developments, this chapter ties the NYSPI mental health project to the post-war expansion of health services, community psychiatry, and a psychologization of both disability and genetic counselling that allowed for more relative definitions of deaf normalcy. Showing the complex transformation of public health-oriented eugenics into individualized genetics, it also makes visible how groups or individuals came to be defined as ‘deviant’, ‘worthy’, or ‘defective’. The

in Eradicating deafness?