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Strategies for global change

This book analyses the evolving Anglo-American counter-terror propaganda strategies that spanned the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as reconstruction, between 2001 and 2008. It offers insights into the transformation beyond this period, tracking many key developments as much as possible up to the time of writing (2013) and providing a retrospective on the 'war on terror'. Using empirical data located within multiple spheres, the book draws on sociology, political science and international relations, developing an interdisciplinary analysis of political communication in the international system. It shows how media technologies presented legal, structural and cultural problems for what were seen as rigid propaganda systems defined by their emergence in an old media system of sovereign states with stable target audiences. Propaganda successes and advances were an inconsistent by-product both of malfunction and of relationships, cultures and rivalries, both domestically and between the partners. The differing social relations of planners and propagandists to wider society create tensions within the 'machine', however leaders may want it to function. The book demonstrates that the 'messy' nature of bureaucracy and international systems as well as the increasingly fluid media environment are all important in shaping what actually happens. In a context of initial failures in formal coordination, the book stresses the importance of informal relationships to planners in the propaganda war. This situated Britain in an important yet precarious position within the Anglo-American propaganda effort, particularly in Iraq.

Abstract only
A. J. Coates

14 Counterterrorism Countering terrorism effectively and at the same time ethically presents a formidable challenge. In the pursuit of an effective strategy counterterrorist forces are often led to adopt morally questionable means. The realist might argue that this is further evidence of the fundamental incompatibility of war and morality; terrorism cannot be defeated without betraying (albeit temporarily and in extremis) the values that the counterterrorist is fighting to uphold. And yet a case can be made (partly on realist grounds) that the most effective way

in The ethics of war
Emma Louise Briant

5 Anglo-American relations in the counter-terrorism propaganda war Introduction This chapter will begin by tracing developing patterns of divergence and convergence in the perceived interests dominant in each country’s leadership. The international system which permitted the emergence of a predominantly Anglo-American ‘war on terror’ was a security environment in transition. Former adversaries now competed in the marketplace of capitalism, with China a rising economic competitor to the US. The period was also characterised by the emerging international position

in Propaganda and counter-terrorism
Abstract only
Emma Louise Briant

1 Introduction Following the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks, the so-called ‘psychological terrain’ was seen as the crucial counter-terrorism ‘battleground’ where compliance might be created or conflict influenced in Afghanistan and Iraq. Much has been written about the ‘hearts and minds’ campaigns of the governments of the United States and United Kingdom. Yet this book will illuminate an unseen story, that of the planning behind the propaganda, from the mouths of the key planners themselves. It traces their efforts to adapt propaganda systems that were

in Propaganda and counter-terrorism
Analytical techniques
Christopher Baker-Beall

1 Investigating the language of EU counter-terrorism: analytical techniques Introduction Research on counter-terrorism is united by a concern with the way in which various actors define, understand and respond to the threat of terrorism. However, beyond this broad commitment it is possible to identify a variety of approaches to the study of counter-terrorism that differ as a direct result of the implicit and explicit assumptions that each individual researcher makes about the social world. Traditional approaches to counter-terrorism predominantly begin from a

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Richard Jackson

aspects: the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq; the strategic dimensions of American oil policy; the operation and organisation of terrorist cells around the world; international security cooperation between nations; the fate of prisoners at Guantanamo Bay; the legal dimensions of counter-terrorism; new homeland security measures such as law-enforcement cooperation and immigration control; and the Bush

in Writing the war on terrorism
Emma Louise Briant

came to be seen as obstructive within institutional cultures. These changes will be shown in later chapters to have differed somewhat in the US and UK, but for both countries were driven by informal in-agency, interagency and inter-country relationships that shaped the entire propaganda effort. 36 Propaganda and counter-terrorism Propaganda audiences Historically, there are two reasons why both Britain and America have divided their propaganda capabilities according to audience. The first relates to ethics and legitimacy. As explained in the introduction, a

in Propaganda and counter-terrorism
Emma Louise Briant

‘his own interests’ to ‘a larger good’ of society or national security (1958: 329). They therefore have a dedication to and belief in their role. Australian former Target Audience Analyst Paula Hanasz observed that, compared to other nationalities in ISAF, American and British PSYOP personnel in particular ‘tended to have more of a dedication to their roles, had a broader appreciation of the 128 Propaganda and counter-terrorism strategic importance of PSYOP, and tended to see their country’s engagement in Afghanistan as important’ (Email: 30th April 2013). This

in Propaganda and counter-terrorism
Abstract only
Emma Louise Briant

informal channels as in-roads to ‘fix’ what were seen as American propaganda and coordination ‘failures’. As America’s Iraq information war was delegated to CENTCOM in Qatar, British personnel found engagement from Pentagon staff dried up along with their engagement in the propaganda campaign (Interview: 224 Propaganda and counter-terrorism Wright, 1st June 2009). They met the barriers to coordination within America’s government and military by working around them where possible, with inconsistent outcomes. Initiative appears to have been enhanced in some cases in

in Propaganda and counter-terrorism
Emma Louise Briant

, 1999). While their activities were marked only for foreign audiences, the International Public Information Group charter stated that Public Affairs should be ‘coordinated, integrated, deconflicted and synchronized’ with PSYOP to avoid contradictory messages – it was thus a precursor to efforts detailed above to weaken this partitioning of propaganda (International Public Information, 1999). While ‘Public Information’ functions continued to be incorporated across government, according to Pugmire, President Bush let this order lapse (2002). 96 Propaganda and counter-terrorism

in Propaganda and counter-terrorism