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  9 3 1 5 Critical realism SCIENCE, that is, knowledge of consequences; which is called also PHILOSOPHY. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan1 Without contraries is no progression. William Blake, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell2 Introduction Critical realism: the painted veil of dialectics3 Critical realism attempted to ground dialectics in realism. Roy Bhaskar dealt extensively with the issue, and challenged Kant’s critique of science, empiricism and positivism throughout his work. He insisted on presenting the epistemological validity of structures or mechanisms which

in Critical theory and epistemology
The politics of modern thought and science

Epistemology should be the axe that breaks the ice of a traditionalism that covers and obstructs scientific enlightenment. This book explores the arguments between critical theory and epistemology in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Focusing on the first and second generations of critical theorists and Luhmann's systems theory, it examines how each approaches epistemology. The book offers a critique of the Kantian base of critical theory's epistemology in conjunction with the latter's endeavour to define political potential through the social function of science. The concept of dialectics is explored as the negation of the irrational and, furthermore, as the open field of epistemological conflict between rationality and irrationality. The book traces the course of arguments that begin with Dilthey's philosophy of a rigorous science, develop with Husserl's phenomenology, Simmel's and Weber's interest in the scientific element within the social concerns of scientific advance. In structuralism, the fear of dialogue prevails. The book discusses the epistemological thought of Pierre Bourdieu and Gilles Deleuze in terms of their persistence in constructing an epistemological understanding of social practice free from the burdens of dialectics, reason and rationality. It also enquires into issues of normativity and modernity within a comparative perspective on modernism, postmodernism and critical theory. Whether in relation to communication deriving from the threefold schema of utterance- information- understanding or in relation to self- reflexivity, systems theory fails to define the bearer or the actor of the previous structural processes. Critical realism attempted to ground dialectics in realism.

became an important political objective for film-makers on the left, and many of the most important films made over this period draw directly upon the realist and naturalist tradition. Realist cinema, 1930–8 So far, the link between nineteenth-century critical realism/naturalism and twentieth-century French film-making has been followed from Zola to Antoine, then to pictorialist

in Realist film theory and cinema
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Introduction As earlier chapters have shown, critical response to the canon of British television drama from the 1960s to the present focuses on oppositions between critical realism and aesthetic modernism. Critics’ responses to Beckett’s work reflected the changing emphases of this critical debate over naturalistic political drama versus avant-garde form. The movement of British television drama from the 1960s to today has been away from theatricality and Modernist experiment with the medium, in favour of

in Beckett on screen
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  7 6 1 Conclusions T his book has aimed to examine dialectics in modern epistemology and to compare it with critical theory, not ‘in order to’ but ‘because’ the latter can offer innovative means of dialectical theorizing. In this way, critical theory has the potential to advance twenty-​first-​century epistemology. The prevailing idea in critical realism, as elaborated in the final chapter, was that dialectics can provide the best path to innovation in the science. The book attempted to avoid old and traditional modes such as ‘biographies’ of scientific terms

in Critical theory and epistemology
Lukácsian cinematic realism in Danton (1990) and Senso (1954)

resides in the fact that it was made at a time when, following the death of Stalin and consequent liberalisation, Marxist film theorists and film-makers were turning again from a dogmatic socialist realism, to the models of critical realism elaborated by Lukács. Like Danton , Senso can be considered Lukácsian in the way that it attempts to portray a historical conjuncture through the prism of individual

in Realist film theory and cinema

years’. 3 The conviction that Lukács’ model of critical realism is both organically and inflexibly wedded to the nineteenth-century realist tradition, and incompatible with modernism, has led many to dismiss his thought and contribution, either in part or in whole. However, and as this chapter will attempt to show, an analysis of the core premises which underlie Lukács’ theoretical model throws this conviction into some

in Realist film theory and cinema

this period in the limelight was once more to prove epigrammatic, and, after 1934, Lukács’ influence was sharply curtailed when his then symbiotic theory of critical realism, the literary expression of the political views expressed in the Blum Theses , was displaced by the dogmatic doctrine of socialist realism advocated by Maxim Gorky, Alexandrovitch Zhdanov and others

in Lukácsian film theory and cinema
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The opposition of structure and agency

Yet there are some who still wish to hold on to the idea that there must be social ‘structures’, independent of actual people and constraining them. Such a conception of structural effects underlies, for example, Bhaskar’s ‘critical realism’: The relations into which people enter pre-exist the individuals who enter into them, and those whose activity reproduces or transforms them; so they are themselves structures. And it is to these structures of social relations that realism directs our attention – both as the explanatory key to understanding social events and

in Human agents and social structures
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Modes of reading in Marxist-socialist and post-Marxist-socialist Television drama criticism

aesthetics and political progressiveness in television drama. For instance, as a Marxist-socialist Trevor Griffiths was often called on to defend the use of television naturalism within his screenplays. He did so on the grounds of accessibility to a popular audience but also asserted that rather than naturalism, which he defined as un-self-reflexive, he actually employed a type of ‘critical realism’, which he placed firmly within a Marxist-socialist literary tradition (see Griffiths, 1986 and Poole and Wyver, 1984). As this suggests, the definition of realism and

in Beyond representation