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James L. Newell

7 Berlusconi and cultural change in Italy In order to understand why Berlusconi has been able to wield such power for such a considerable length of time, we have to understand the effect he has had on the minds of his collaborators and supporters, and of the Italian public generally. In other words, we have to understand his impact on popular culture, meaning here the thoughts and actions that are indicative of the way in which ordinary people interpret social and political reality and represent it to themselves. Culture clearly doesn’t fully explain phenomena

in Silvio Berlusconi
Frank Sinatra, Postwar Liberalism and Press Paranoia
Karen McNally

Anti-Communist hysteria had a wide-ranging impact on Hollywood across the postwar period. As writers, directors and stars came under the scrutiny of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) due to the content of their films and their political activities, careers were interrupted indefinitely and Hollywood‘s ability to promote cultural change in the new era following World War II was severely hampered. Frank Sinatra‘s heavy involvement in liberal politics during this period illustrates the problems confronting the American film industry as it attempted to address the country‘s imperfections.

Film Studies
The Victorian cult of Alfred the Great
Author: Joanne Parker

This book provides a broad account of the nineteenth-century cult of King Alfred. It reveals the rich cultural interest of the corpus of texts as a whole. The book redresses a misleading modern emphasis on Arthur and the Victorians, and addresses a genuine gap in the current literature on nineteenth-century medievalism. The book focuses on what was probably the apex of Victorian Alfredianism. It provides the background to this event both in terms of the wider cultural movements and in the sense of the Alfredian tradition which the nineteenth century inherited. The intersection of the cult of Alfred with nineteenth-century British politics is considered in the book, which focuses upon the role that Alfredianism played in debate about the future of the monarchy. The book speculates how the Saxon king was enlisted to vindicate and ennoble those institutions of which Victorian Britain was most proud - notably its navy, law-code, constitution and empire. It examines the conceptions of ninth-century Wessex as a time of immense cultural change - the mirror-image of the nineteenth century - and reviews Victorian appropriations of Alfred's reign as a prestigious starting point for myths of national progress. The book further focuses upon more domestic narratives - the use of Alfred, by Victorian authors, to exemplify moral values, and the rewriting of his life as a parable of error and redemption. Finally, the crucial question of Alfred's decline in fame is addressed in the book, which surveys the diminished interest in the Saxon king after 1901.

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Punk, politics and resistance

The Subcultures Network is a cross-disciplinary research network for scholars and students interested in the relationship between subcultures (in all their forms) and wider processes of social, cultural and political change. Bringing together theoretical analyses, empirical studies and methodological discussions, the network is designed to explore the relationships between subcultures and their historical context, and the place of subcultures within patterns of cultural and political change. This book is very much a product of the Network's brief and emerged, in large part, from the inaugural symposium held at London Metropolitan University in September 2011. The book is divided into three parts, each with a broadly defined theme. The first of these relates to punk and identity, particularly with regard to gender, class, age and race. The second part looks at punk's relationship to locality and space. In particular, it deals with two overlapping processes. First, the ways in which punk's transmission allowed for diverse interpretation and utilisation of the cultural form beyond local, regional and national boundaries. Second, the extent to which punk's aesthetic and expression was shaped by, inspired and reflected the environments in which its protagonists lived. The third and final part concentrates on communication and reception. From within the culture, the language of punk is brought under discursive analysis by Melani Schröter, who looks at the critiques of 'normality' contained within the lyrics of German punk bands from the late 1970s through to the present day.

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McGahern’s personal and detached reflections
Tom Inglis

rural to urban society and the decline in the importance of the Catholic Church in everyday life. McGahern reveals what it was like to make love and have sex in Ireland during the shift from a Catholic culture of selfdenial to a modern, urban, cosmopolitan culture of self-fulfilment and self-indulgence. love and sex  111 It is possible to think of McGahern as one of the major chroniclers of cultural change in twentieth-century Ireland. However, while he accepted this description of himself, he emphasised that he was not trying to give an objective, detached

in John McGahern
Open Access (free)
The 1970 general election
Steven Fielding

accommodating to the concerns of youth; and promoted popular participation with less suspicion. While such matters did not all directly determine Labour’s electoral fate, the party’s failure to secure re-election suggests that it had not adequately come to terms with at least some of the cultural changes fostered by the ‘Golden Age’. The picture was, however, not universally bleak. With that proposition it mind, this final chapter reviews how the party approached the 1970 campaign, assesses the result and accounts for Labour’s response, one that set it down a path that led to

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Open Access (free)
Cultural and political change in 1960s Britain
Steven Fielding

introductory chapter is to clarify and contextualise issues that will be later investigated in greater depth and to outline the author’s approach to the subject. Taking the second concern first, the critic Raymond Williams long ago remarked that, because there are so many ways in which it can be defined, ‘culture’ is one of the most difficult words in the English language.1 To avoid later confusion, it is therefore necessary to clarify what in this work ‘cultural change’ implies. Following Williams, ‘culture’ here means ‘relationships between elements in a whole way of life

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
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Keynes, consumer rights and the new thrifty consumers
Alison Hulme

economic theory and policy caused cultural changes too. Once the thrift of the Second World War was over, there was a notable change across the United States and Western Europe in attitudes towards consumption, and it is often hailed as the ‘moment’ that consumer society was born. There has been much written about the birth of consumerism –​when it happened, what it was and, indeed, whether it occurred at a specific ‘moment’ at all. The problem seems, in part at least, to be one of a lack of clarity surrounding the terms ‘consumption’ on the one hand, and ‘consumerism

in A brief history of thrift
Steven Fielding

2 Labour’s organisational culture The purpose of this chapter is to establish the institutional context for Labour’s response to cultural change.1 It surveys the character of the party’s organisation and the nature of its membership on the verge of the 1960s, and in particular highlights the activities and assumptions of those most responsible for the party’s well-being. Before that can be done, however, it is necessary to outline Labour’s organisational structure and identify some of the issues to which it gave rise. The basic unit in all 618 constituency

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
How the Communist Party of Great Britain discovered punk rock
Matthew Worley

revealed much about the fissures opening up in the CPGB as it travelled towards dissolution in 1991. Cultural changes, the undermining of communist authority in the wake of Soviet actions and revelations, shifting social dynamics, the emergence of identity politics, technological advances and the allure of consumption all conspired to cut a swathe through long-held convictions. As the world changed, so the CPGB struggled to change with it.15 But while the results of all this are relatively well known, as ‘modernisers’ and ‘traditionalists’ did battle over the CPGB

in Labour and working-class lives