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James L. Newell

7 Berlusconi and cultural change in Italy In order to understand why Berlusconi has been able to wield such power for such a considerable length of time, we have to understand the effect he has had on the minds of his collaborators and supporters, and of the Italian public generally. In other words, we have to understand his impact on popular culture, meaning here the thoughts and actions that are indicative of the way in which ordinary people interpret social and political reality and represent it to themselves. Culture clearly doesn’t fully explain phenomena

in Silvio Berlusconi
Frank Sinatra, Postwar Liberalism and Press Paranoia
Karen McNally

Anti-Communist hysteria had a wide-ranging impact on Hollywood across the postwar period. As writers, directors and stars came under the scrutiny of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) due to the content of their films and their political activities, careers were interrupted indefinitely and Hollywood‘s ability to promote cultural change in the new era following World War II was severely hampered. Frank Sinatra‘s heavy involvement in liberal politics during this period illustrates the problems confronting the American film industry as it attempted to address the country‘s imperfections.

Film Studies
Author: Sarah Wright

In the full-length treatment of the child in Spanish cinema, this book explores the ways that the cinematic child comes to represent 'prosthetic memory'. The cinematic children in the book retain traces of their mechanical origins: thus they are dolls, ventriloquists' dummies, cyborgs or automata. Moreover, by developing the monstrous undertones evoked by these mechanical traces (cinema such as 'Frankensteinian dream'), these films, in different ways, return repeatedly to a central motif. The central motif is the child's confrontation with a monster and, derivatively, the theme of the monstrous child. Through their obsessive recreation over time, the themes of the child and the monster and the monstrous child come to stand in metonymically for the confrontation of the self with the horrors of Spain's recent past. The book focuses on the cine religioso (religious cinema), in particular, Marcelino, pan y vino. The children of cine religioso appear like automata, programmed to love unconditionally an absent mother. The book then examines the Marisol's films from the 1960s and the way she was groomed by her creators to respond and engineer the economic and cultural changes of the consumerist Spain of the 1960s. It further deals with Victor Erice's El espiritu de la colmena and works through cinematic memories of this film in later works such as El laberinto del fauno, El orfanato and El espinazo del diablo. The films are seen to gesture towards the imaginary creation of a missing child.

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McGahern’s personal and detached reflections
Tom Inglis

rural to urban society and the decline in the importance of the Catholic Church in everyday life. McGahern reveals what it was like to make love and have sex in Ireland during the shift from a Catholic culture of selfdenial to a modern, urban, cosmopolitan culture of self-fulfilment and self-indulgence. love and sex  111 It is possible to think of McGahern as one of the major chroniclers of cultural change in twentieth-century Ireland. However, while he accepted this description of himself, he emphasised that he was not trying to give an objective, detached

in John McGahern
Open Access (free)
The 1970 general election
Steven Fielding

accommodating to the concerns of youth; and promoted popular participation with less suspicion. While such matters did not all directly determine Labour’s electoral fate, the party’s failure to secure re-election suggests that it had not adequately come to terms with at least some of the cultural changes fostered by the ‘Golden Age’. The picture was, however, not universally bleak. With that proposition it mind, this final chapter reviews how the party approached the 1970 campaign, assesses the result and accounts for Labour’s response, one that set it down a path that led to

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Open Access (free)
Cultural and political change in 1960s Britain
Steven Fielding

introductory chapter is to clarify and contextualise issues that will be later investigated in greater depth and to outline the author’s approach to the subject. Taking the second concern first, the critic Raymond Williams long ago remarked that, because there are so many ways in which it can be defined, ‘culture’ is one of the most difficult words in the English language.1 To avoid later confusion, it is therefore necessary to clarify what in this work ‘cultural change’ implies. Following Williams, ‘culture’ here means ‘relationships between elements in a whole way of life

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
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Keynes, consumer rights and the new thrifty consumers
Alison Hulme

economic theory and policy caused cultural changes too. Once the thrift of the Second World War was over, there was a notable change across the United States and Western Europe in attitudes towards consumption, and it is often hailed as the ‘moment’ that consumer society was born. There has been much written about the birth of consumerism –​when it happened, what it was and, indeed, whether it occurred at a specific ‘moment’ at all. The problem seems, in part at least, to be one of a lack of clarity surrounding the terms ‘consumption’ on the one hand, and ‘consumerism

in A brief history of thrift
Steven Fielding

2 Labour’s organisational culture The purpose of this chapter is to establish the institutional context for Labour’s response to cultural change.1 It surveys the character of the party’s organisation and the nature of its membership on the verge of the 1960s, and in particular highlights the activities and assumptions of those most responsible for the party’s well-being. Before that can be done, however, it is necessary to outline Labour’s organisational structure and identify some of the issues to which it gave rise. The basic unit in all 618 constituency

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
How the Communist Party of Great Britain discovered punk rock
Matthew Worley

revealed much about the fissures opening up in the CPGB as it travelled towards dissolution in 1991. Cultural changes, the undermining of communist authority in the wake of Soviet actions and revelations, shifting social dynamics, the emergence of identity politics, technological advances and the allure of consumption all conspired to cut a swathe through long-held convictions. As the world changed, so the CPGB struggled to change with it.15 But while the results of all this are relatively well known, as ‘modernisers’ and ‘traditionalists’ did battle over the CPGB

in Labour and working-class lives
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Culture, value, Shakespeare
Kate McLuskie and Kate Rumbold

of different uses. We turn to ‘culture’ in Chapter 4 to reopen the now commonplace distinction between its so-called anthropological and artistic meanings. We show how the discussions of culture involve both narratives of cultural change and ways of managing the knowledge in order to arrive at definitions of culture as valuable. Using specific examples of cultural contest, we explore the connection

in Cultural value in twenty-first-century England