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The social transformation of the Scottish Highlands
Author: T. M. Devine

This book charts the story of the people of the Scottish Highlands from before the '45 to the great crofters' rebellion in the 1880s - a powerful story of defeat, social dissolution, emigration, rebellion and cultural revival. The conventional and familiar division of Scotland into 'Highlands' and 'Lowlands' is a comparatively recent development. Strangely, fourteenth century chroniclers who noted differences in culture, dress, speech and social behaviour between the Highlands and the Lowlands failed to comment on clanship as a distinguishing characteristic. During the Wars of Independence against England, soldiers from the Highlands fought on the Scottish side but were not given clan affiliations. The penetration of feudal structures into the Highlands blurred the distinction between clanship and social systems elsewhere in Scotland and many of the greatest clan chiefs were feudal lords as well as tribal leaders. This can be best illustrated from the history of the Lordship of the Isles. Successive heads of the MacDonald dynasty practised primogeniture, issued feudal charters to major landowners in the lordship and employed feudal rules in marital contracts. It used to be thought that Highland clanship died on Culloden Moor in 1746 and was effectively buried by the punitive legislation imposed on Gaeldom after the final defeat of the last Jacobite rebellion. It is clear that clan society was undergoing a process of gradual and protracted decline long before the '45 and that the climax to this was reached in the decades after the failure of the rebellion.

Scouting for rebels
Author: Marnie Hay

This book provides a scholarly yet accessible account of the Irish nationalist youth organisation Na Fianna Éireann and its contribution to the Irish Revolution in the period 1909–23. Countess Constance Markievicz and Bulmer Hobson established Na Fianna Éireann, or the Irish National Boy Scouts, in Dublin in 1909 as an Irish nationalist antidote to Robert Baden-Powell’s Boy Scout movement founded in the previous year. The Fianna soon spread beyond the Irish capital, offering their mainly male membership a combination of military training, outdoor adventure and Irish cultural activities. Between their inception in 1909 and near decimation during the Irish Civil War of 1922–23, Na Fianna Éireann recruited, trained and nurtured a cadre of young nationalist activists who made an essential contribution to the struggle for Irish independence. This book situates the Fianna within the wider international context of uniformed youth groups that arose in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as a response to societal anxieties associated with the coming war in Europe. It compares and contrasts the Fianna to other Irish youth groups of the period and demonstrates how the Fianna served as a conduit for future members of adult paramilitary organisations, most notably the Irish Volunteers (later known as the Irish Republican Army).

Learning from Māori curatorship pastand present
Conal McCarthy, Arapata Hakiwai and Philipp Schorch

looted but gifted, then there still remains the responsibility for future reciprocity. Museums across the world, then, can learn from the remarkable return of the feather cloak from Aotearoa New Zealand to Hawai‘i, alluded to above, and strive to become active agents in shaping The figure of the kaitiaki cultural revival and future potentialities on a global scale. We leave the final words to Tamarapa, who, when asked what a curator in Europe could learn from her work, replied: If these people so far away looking after our taonga can see that they are living

in Curatopia
Bilingual manoeuvres in the work of Somerville and Ross
Margaret Kelleher

Ross, located towards the end of a period of large-scale language shift and near the beginning of a cultural revival, offer some especially vivid portraits of ‘mobile’ speech and ‘truncated repertoires’. In the case of ‘An Irish Problem’, they show a keen understanding of the comic possibilities offered by a bilingual scene featuring its participants’ ‘everyday arts of manoeuvring and self-irony’ and provide a valuable reminder that early twentieth-century Irish society contained many bilingual members continuing to use Irish. Notes 1 Somerville and Ross’s diaries

in Irish women’s writing, 1878–1922
Laura Jeffery

the displacement, which requires recognition that culture is not static but changeable. This chapter investigates how Chagossian socio-political and socio-cultural groups have responded to the dual challenge of needing to represent both cultural continuity and cultural change. It starts by outlining the main issues in the anthropology of the politics of culture. It then explores how Chagos islanders came to identify collectively as Chagossians. Next, it illuminates processes of Chagossian cultural revival and gendered transmission in exile. Finally, it shows how

in Chagos islanders in Mauritius and the UK
Marnie Hay

This chapter examines the membership of Na Fianna Éireann in the period 1909–23 in order to provide a general profile of who joined this nationalist youth group during Ireland’s revolutionary era. In this period, members of the Fianna were mainly (but not exclusively) male youths from Irish Catholic nationalist families who were influenced by the Irish cultural revival and the cult of discipline, training and manliness prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The research for this chapter is based on three samples of former members gleaned from Bureau of Military History witness statements, entries from the Dictionary of Irish Biography and applications from the Military Service Pensions collection.

in Na Fianna Éireann and the Irish Revolution, 1909–23
The legacy of 1848
Christine Kinealy

This chapter examines the considerable legacy of the Nation, Young Ireland and the Irish Confederation. The Fenian Brotherhood, the Home Rule movement, the Land League and the cultural revival of the late nineteenth century all had their roots in the writings or personal involvement of the leaders of the 1848 rising. This extraordinary group of individuals also inspired later generations of male and female radicals and revolutionaries whose prose, poetry, plays and political activities culminated in the Easter Rising. The participants in this rebellion made it clear that they were the latest phase of a revolutionary continuum that had commenced in 1798, resumed in 1848 and 1867, and was completed in 1916. What is apparent when looking at the legacy of the 1848 uprising is that the men and women who played a part in it left an intellectual and ideological legacy that continued to reverberate into the twenty-first century.

in Repeal and revolution
Irish republican media activism since the Good Friday Agreement
Author: Paddy Hoey

Newspapers, magazines and pamphlets have always been central, almost sacred, forms of communication within Irish republican political culture. While social media is becoming the primary ideological battleground in many democracies, Irish republicanism steadfastly expresses itself in the traditional forms of activist journalism.

Shinners, Dissos and Dissenters is a long-term analysis of the development of Irish republican activist media since 1998 and the tumultuous years following the end of the Troubles. It is the first in-depth analysis of the newspapers, magazines and online spaces in which the differing strands of Irish republicanism developed and were articulated during a period where schism and dissent defined a return to violence.

Based on an analysis of Irish republican media outlets as well as interviews with the key activists that produced them, this book provides a compelling long-term snapshot of a political ideology in transition. It reveals how Irish Republicanism was moulded by the twin forces of the Northern Ireland Peace Process and the violent internal ideological schism that threatened a return to the ‘bad old days’ of the Troubles.

This book is vital for those studying Irish politics and those interestedin activism as it provides new insights into the role that modern activist media forms have played in the ideological development of a 200-year-old political tradition.

Regina Uí Chollatáin

cultural revival in Irish society after independence in 1922. Although both Irish language journalism and the Irish language survived, neither flourished. Due to the scholarly, academic, and educational emphasis on aspects of language and cultural revival, it is possible that the potential benefit of Irish language journalism was overlooked or even ignored, but it is difficult to evaluate this concept without a full assessment of the implied potential, if indeed potential existed at all. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to do an in-depth examination of over forty

in Irish journalism before independence
‘Indian’ art at the Sydenham Palace
Sarah Victoria Turner

, between 1909 and 1911 by Christiana Herringham and her team, which included students Nandalal Bose, Samarendranath Gupta and Asit Kumar Haldar from Calcutta Art School. All were students of the VicePrincipal and key figure in the Bengal cultural revival, Abanindranath Tagore, and would play an important role in the nationalist art movement in India. They were joined by Syad Ahmed and Muhammad Fazl ud Din, both from the Government Art School at Hyderabad, and one British artist, Dorothy Larcher, was recruited from Hornsey Art School to join Herringham’s team. Christiana

in After 1851