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John K. Walton

12 Coastal resorts and cultural exchange in Europe, 1780–18701 john k. walton T owns have always been engines of cultural exchange, but certain urban types have been more active in promoting this than others. Particularly important have been capital cities, inland spas and other regional and local centres of polite society and recreational gatherings. From the early eighteenth century in England, and rather later in Europe, the seaside resort was to add to the list of urban centres of cultural exchange. Seaside settings brought together temporarily displaced

in Leisure cultures in urban Europe, c.1700–1870
Jill Steward

11 The role of inland spas as sites of transnational cultural exchange in the production of European leisure culture (1750–1870) jill steward B aths and spas have a long history as leisure settings. In the ancient world, luxurious Roman baths offered a model of what a leisure resort might aspire to, as embellished with gardens, promenades, gymnasiums, libraries and museums, they constituted ‘a microcosm of many of the things that make life attractive’1. For this reason, they attracted plenty of customers uninterested in their health, serviced by motley

in Leisure cultures in urban Europe, c.1700–1870
Author: Jim Cheshire

This book presents a study that is an attempt to understand the phenomenal increase in the production and demand for stained glass between about 1835 and 1860. The book provides both history and context for thousands of Victorian stained-glass windows that exist in churches across the country. It aims to: ask why people became interested in stained glass; examine how glass-painters set up their studios; and understand how they interacted with each other and their patrons. To understand why so many windows were commissioned and made in the Victorian period, readers need to understand how buying a stained-glass window became a relatively ordinary thing to do. In order to examine this, the book focuses on those who wrote or spoke about stained glass in the formative years of the revival. It is important to look at the production of stained glass as a cultural exchange: a negotiation in both financial and cultural terms that was profitable for both glass-painter and patron. The history of Victorian stained glass allows an examination of many other areas of nineteenth-century cultural history. Readers can learn a lot about the aesthetics of the Gothic Revival, ecclesiology, the relationship between 'fine' and 'decorative' art, and the circulation of art history in the 1840s. While many interesting glass-painters have necessarily been omitted, the author hopes that the case studies in the book will provide a point of reference for the research of future scholars.

This volume considers transnational and intercultural aspects of early modern theatre, drama and performance. Its twelve chapters, loosely cosmographically grouped into West, North and South, compose a complex image of early modern theatre connections as a socially, economically, politically and culturally realised tissue of links, networks, influences and paths of exchange. With particular attention to itinerant performers, court festival, and the significant black, Muslim and Jewish impact, they combine disciplines and methods to place Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the wider context of early performance culture in English, Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Czech and Italian speaking Europe. Their shared methodological approach examines transnational connections by linking abstract notions of wider theatre historical significance to concrete historical facts: archaeological findings, archival records, visual artefacts, and textual evidence. Crucial to the volume is this systematic yoking of theories with surviving historical evidence for the performative event – whether as material object, text, performative routine, theatregrams, rituals, festivities, genres, archival evidence or visual documentation. This approach enables it to explore the infinite variety of early modern performance culture by expanding the discourse, questioning the received canon, and rethinking the national restrictions of conventional maps to reveal a theatre that truly is without borders.

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(Ex)changes and drawbacks
Carla Konta

‘to move ahead toward the creation of a “compromise between Western democratic traditions and proletarian dictatorships”.’ 1 The long-range exchange program was primarily ‘an investment in people’: cultural cooperation depended on established ties between American and Yugoslav institutions, and their effectiveness ‘in interpreting […] the needs of their own societies.’ 2 Both American and Yugoslav policymakers shared this view. Yugoslav willingness to embark on broad and opulent cultural exchange programs with the United States proved, like in no other bilateral

in US public diplomacy in socialist Yugoslavia, 1950–70
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Glennis Byron

specifically the role technology played in producing these new gothic forms. And, finally, to consider not only how the processes of globalisation were facilitating the cultural exchanges that were producing new forms of gothic but also whether globalisation itself was being represented in gothic terms, with traditional gothic tropes being reformulated to engage with the anxieties produced by the breakdown of

in Globalgothic
Clarisse Coulomb

French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars affected this mutual tourism badly. It was not until after Waterloo in 1815 that tourism between the two countries revived, and experienced a new era with the dawn of the railway revolution around 1820. In recent decades, Josephine Grieder and Robin Eagles have rightly emphasised that travellers were the main vehicles for Anglomania in France and Francophilia in England.5 Cross-Channel cultural exchanges during the City of pleasure or ville des plaisirs? long eighteenth century have been well researched.6 However, even though

in Leisure cultures in urban Europe, c.1700–1870
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The legacy of Der Blaue Reiter in the art of Paul Klee and Nacer Khemir
Sarah McGavran

evidence suggests that the artists’ contact with Tunisians was limited.9 Thus, Homi Bhabha’s post-colonial theory, which emphasizes the uneven cultural exchange and interaction between European colonizers and colonized peoples over time, is more helpful here.10 Khemir also provides a concrete example of inverse cultural exchange, from west (Klee) to east (Khemir), but one that took place over a much longer period than did Klee’s short trip to Tunisia in 1914. Khemir’s affinity for Klee stems from his perception, which he reiterates throughout Die Tunisreise, that Klee

in German Expressionism
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Andrew Smith and Anna Barton

which erroneously formed these texts into a monolithic cannon of Punjabi folk-culture. By looking at the role played in this process by those associated with the colonial administration, Mahn illustrates how acts of colonial appropriation were, in part, driven by an inability to understand the unique cultural forms of the Punjab. This chapter thus explores the ways in which Punjabi literary culture became filtered in British writing and provides a clear example of the issue of cultural exchange in the period and the factors

in Interventions
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds
Jeremy C.A. Smith

dimensions of inter-​civilisational engagement:  migration, deep engagement in economic relations, cultural exchange and creation, and political reconstruction of civilisational models. The four dimensions are not exhaustively treated and are analytics for further substantive research, starting with the exploration in chapters in the subsequent part. This chapter features several examples that illustrate aspects of the argument. Most of them are remote from the twenty-​first century and are chosen to illuminate what has generally been neglected:  the very early development

in Debating civilisations