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America in Rome at the beginning of the twentieth century
Daniele Fiorentino

This chapter highlights the intense transnational cultural exchange between Italy and the United States between the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. This relationship was part of a larger transatlantic connection that prepared the ground for the central role of the United States in international affairs, while opening the road to transformation and growth in Italy. Among these connections were the formation of the American Academy in Rome in 1897, and the founding of the Library for American Studies by Harry Nelson Gay, which opened in the Italian capital in 1918. This potential would fully spread its wings only after World War II and the end of the disruptive interval of Fascism. As it is often the case in history, economic and political relations were central, but they could not have flourished without the most important ‘soft power’, as it is called nowadays, represented by the arts, literature, and history. At the time, both countries were able to use their cultural potential as part of their changing political status on the international stage. The American attitude towards the new Italy slowly began combining a traditional approach to the country’s monumental past with an attraction to what seemed a lively and dynamic new reality still in the process of nation building. This chapter details the participation of Italy and the United States in world fairs and international exhibitions, and traces the history of these two American cultural institutions in Italy.

in Republics and empires
Edward H. Wouk

The Morbetto, or Plague in Crete, designed by Raphael and engraved by Marcantonio Raimondi, juxtaposes the pestilence described in Virgils Aeneid with the ruinous state of Romes ancient remains in the Renaissance. This article examines this exceptional collaboration between the artist and engraver in light of early modern medical knowledge of contagion and an emerging discourse on the preservation of Roman ruins. It argues that the tonal properties of engraving and reproducible nature of print are integral to the meaning of the Morbetto, an image in which new artistic creation arises from a cultural landscape dominated by the fragmentary heritage of the past.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

founding of those new institutions: the rise of corporate museums; the changing nature of museums across Europe’s cultural landscape; the ‘history boom’ of the 1980s; and the local history movement. Corporate museums were not a new thing by the time Red Cross museums opened in Geneva, the UK, and Germany, but they had seen a remarkable upswing since the 1960s and demonstrated that museums could be a useful tool of public outreach for organizations ( Danilov, 1992

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lisette R. Robles

socio-cultural landscape dictates certain norms that make women’s help-seeking easier (or more difficult). This confirms that the survivor’s social connection can make or break GBV help-seeking to happen. Help-Seeking as an Indicator of Trust From the review of interview transcripts, the refugee leaders and service providers detailed how the refugee GBV survivor’s help-seeking begins with reaching out to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Objects, disciplines and the Manchester Museum

At the turn of the nineteenth century, museums in Europe and North America were at their largest and most powerful. New buildings were bigger; objects flooded into them, and more people visited them than ever before. The Manchester Museum is an ideal candidate for understanding cultures of display in twentieth-century Britain. It is a treasure trove of some four million priceless objects that are irreplaceable and unique. Like many large European collections, the origins of the Manchester Museum are to be found in a private cabinet: that of John Leigh Philips. This book traces the fate of his cabinet from his death in 1814. The establishment of the Manchester Natural History Society (MNHS) allowed naturalists to carve out a space in Manchester's cultural landscape. The Manchester Museum's development was profoundly affected by the history of the University in which it operated. In January 1868, the Natural History Society formally dissolved, and an interim commission took control of its collections; the Manchester Geological Society transferred its collections the following year. The new collection was to be purely scientific, comprising geology, zoology and botany, with no place for some of the more exotic specimens of the Society. The objects in the collection became part of Manchester's civic identity, bringing with them traces of science, empire and the exotic. Other museological changes were afoot in the 1990s. Natural history collections became key sites for public engagement with environmental issues and biodiversity and more recently as sites for exhibiting art.

This book provides a chronological study of popular cinema in Brazil since the introduction of sound at the beginning of the 1930s. It begins the study with a brief discussion of how people understand the term 'popular cinema', particularly within a Latin American context. The focus is on films that have intentionally engaged with 'low-brow' cultural products, whose origins lie in pre-industrial traditions, and which have been enjoyed by wide sectors of the population, chiefly at the lower end of the social hierarchy. Perhaps the most important contribution of the chanchada of the 1950s was to render visible a social class within Brazil's socio-cultural landscape, and to champion the underdog, who succeeds in triumphing, through malandragem, over more powerful opponents. Brazilian popular cinema, at least until the 1980s, can be seen as a direct descendant of other shared cultural experiences. Popular film in Brazil is littered with examples of carnivalesque inversions of societal norms and established hierarchies. The 1930s witnessed the rise of the radio, the record industry and the talking cinema. The first half of the 1940s witnessed a continuation of Getúlio Vargas's quest for economic expansion based on the creation of a dignified workforce, rewarded for its efforts by improvements in the welfare system. The book also looks at three very popular cinematic sub-genres which provided a continuation of the chanchada tradition in Brazilian filmmaking: the films of Amacio Mazzaropi; those of the comedic quartet known as the Trapalhoes; and the so-called pornochanchada series of films.

Reflections on cricket, culture and meaning
Brian Stoddart

The cultural landscape of cricket alone signifies the game’s centrality in both imperial and post-colonial social construction. While there has been much discussion about who was included in playing the game, for example, it is as important to note those excluded – for a long time that involved such diverse groups as women in most areas, working-class blacks in the

in The imperial game
William Welstead

concerns the relationship between the poetry, distinctive landscape and ancient agro-pastoral system of the English Lake District and Cumbria that was to inspire Wordsworth and the Romantics. The relationship between agriculture, landscape, literature and visual art was formally recognised in July 2017 with the designation of the English Lake District as a UNESCO Cultural Landscape. This chapter considers how these literary and artistic traditions drew their inspiration from the agro-pastoral practices of the farmers in the Lake District and across upland England. This

in Writing on sheep
Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape

Victorian touring actresses: Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape provides a new perspective on the on- and offstage lives of women working in nineteenth-century theatre, and affirms the central role of touring, both within the United Kingdom and in North America and Australasia. Drawing on extensive archival research, it features a cross-section of neglected performers whose dramatic specialisms range from tragedy to burlesque. Although they were employed as stars in their own time, their contribution to the industry has largely been forgotten. The book’s innovative organisation follows a natural lifecycle, enabling a detailed examination of the practical challenges and opportunities typically encountered by the actress at each stage of her working life. Individual experiences are scrutinised to highlight the career implications of strategies adopted to cope with the demands of the profession, the physical potential of the actress’s body, and the operation of gendered power on and offstage. Analysis is situated in a wide contextual framework and reveals how reception and success depended on the performer’s response to the changing political, economic, social and cultural landscape as well as to developments in professional practice and organisation. The book concludes with discussion of the legacies of the performers, linking their experiences to the present-day situation.

Abstract only
Mary Gilmartin

chapter. The first is the cultural landscapes of migration. Cultural landscapes offer an insight into the relationship between migration, place and identity that is both material and symbolic. They provide tangible evidence of the influence of migrants on specific places, while also showing the ways in which migrants construct identities that are local and transnational. The challenge, though, is to identify both visible and less visible cultural landscapes of migration, because each gives important insights into the relationship between culture and migration. The

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century