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America in Rome at the beginning of the twentieth century
Daniele Fiorentino

This chapter highlights the intense transnational cultural exchange between Italy and the United States between the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. This relationship was part of a larger transatlantic connection that prepared the ground for the central role of the United States in international affairs, while opening the road to transformation and growth in Italy. Among these connections were the formation of the American Academy in Rome in 1897, and the founding of the Library for American Studies by Harry Nelson Gay, which opened in the Italian capital in 1918. This potential would fully spread its wings only after World War II and the end of the disruptive interval of Fascism. As it is often the case in history, economic and political relations were central, but they could not have flourished without the most important ‘soft power’, as it is called nowadays, represented by the arts, literature, and history. At the time, both countries were able to use their cultural potential as part of their changing political status on the international stage. The American attitude towards the new Italy slowly began combining a traditional approach to the country’s monumental past with an attraction to what seemed a lively and dynamic new reality still in the process of nation building. This chapter details the participation of Italy and the United States in world fairs and international exhibitions, and traces the history of these two American cultural institutions in Italy.

in Republics and empires
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Ecology, the animal turn and sheep in poetry

Sheep have been closely associated with humans for at least 10,000 years, but despite their ubiquity and association with agro-pastoral cultural landscapes, they are poorly represented in both poetry and in critical readings of pastoral texts. This book addresses that omission by applying concepts from the still emerging field of animal studies to an ecologically focused reading of poetry referencing sheep. The distinction between wild and domesticated species is called into question, with particular attention to Tim Ingold’s ideas about how hunters and pastoralists differ in the relations they have with animals. Pastoral literature is compared with what pastoralism means in agriculture and how it can produce landscapes with a high nature value. Poetry from the upland sheep-farming areas of western Britain is read from the viewpoint of the animal turn. The sheep-breeding practices of Dorset and Devon are explored through the poetry of Ted Hughes and Kay Syrad. Sheep and sheep keeping have been heavily involved in emigration of people, sheep and agricultural practice to the settler colonies, so readings of a small selection of poems from the USA and New Zealand are included to open the important topic of postcolonial reading of sheep poetry. The final chapter opens the question of whether sheep and poets have a future as the crisis deepens. The book makes a contribution to the literature of animal studies and ends with the question of whether the ethical case for a vegan lifestyle and low emissions means that the whole species is destined for extinction.

Edward H. Wouk

The Morbetto, or Plague in Crete, designed by Raphael and engraved by Marcantonio Raimondi, juxtaposes the pestilence described in Virgils Aeneid with the ruinous state of Romes ancient remains in the Renaissance. This article examines this exceptional collaboration between the artist and engraver in light of early modern medical knowledge of contagion and an emerging discourse on the preservation of Roman ruins. It argues that the tonal properties of engraving and reproducible nature of print are integral to the meaning of the Morbetto, an image in which new artistic creation arises from a cultural landscape dominated by the fragmentary heritage of the past.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

founding of those new institutions: the rise of corporate museums; the changing nature of museums across Europe’s cultural landscape; the ‘history boom’ of the 1980s; and the local history movement. Corporate museums were not a new thing by the time Red Cross museums opened in Geneva, the UK, and Germany, but they had seen a remarkable upswing since the 1960s and demonstrated that museums could be a useful tool of public outreach for organizations ( Danilov, 1992

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lisette R. Robles

socio-cultural landscape dictates certain norms that make women’s help-seeking easier (or more difficult). This confirms that the survivor’s social connection can make or break GBV help-seeking to happen. Help-Seeking as an Indicator of Trust From the review of interview transcripts, the refugee leaders and service providers detailed how the refugee GBV survivor’s help-seeking begins with reaching out to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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The Calcutta Jute Wallahs and the Landscapes of Empire

Dundee had an interesting role to play in the jute trade, but the main player in the story of jute was Calcutta. This book follows the relationship of jute to empire, and discusses the rivalry between the Scottish and Indian cities from the 1840s to the 1950s and reveals the architecture of jute's place in the British Empire. The book adopts significant fresh approaches to imperial history, and explores the economic and cultural landscapes of the British Empire. Jute had been grown, spun and woven in Bengal for centuries before it made its appearance as a factory-manufactured product in world markets in the late 1830s. The book discusses the profits made in Calcutta during the rise of jute between the 1880s and 1920s; the profits reached extraordinary levels during and after World War I. The Calcutta jute industry entered a crisis period even before it was pummelled by the depression of the 1930s. The looming crisis stemmed from the potential of the Calcutta mills to outproduce world demand many times over. The St Andrew's Day rituals in Calcutta, begun three years before the founding of the Indian Jute Mills Association. The ceremonial occasion helps the reader to understand what the jute wallahs meant when they said they were in Calcutta for 'the greater glory of Scotland'. The book sheds some light on the contentious issues surrounding the problematic, if ever-intriguing, phenomenon of British Empire. The jute wallahs were inextricably bound up in the cultural self-images generated by British imperial ideology.

Reflections on cricket, culture and meaning
Brian Stoddart

The cultural landscape of cricket alone signifies the game’s centrality in both imperial and post-colonial social construction. While there has been much discussion about who was included in playing the game, for example, it is as important to note those excluded – for a long time that involved such diverse groups as women in most areas, working-class blacks in the

in The imperial game
William Welstead

concerns the relationship between the poetry, distinctive landscape and ancient agro-pastoral system of the English Lake District and Cumbria that was to inspire Wordsworth and the Romantics. The relationship between agriculture, landscape, literature and visual art was formally recognised in July 2017 with the designation of the English Lake District as a UNESCO Cultural Landscape. This chapter considers how these literary and artistic traditions drew their inspiration from the agro-pastoral practices of the farmers in the Lake District and across upland England. This

in Writing on sheep
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Mary Gilmartin

chapter. The first is the cultural landscapes of migration. Cultural landscapes offer an insight into the relationship between migration, place and identity that is both material and symbolic. They provide tangible evidence of the influence of migrants on specific places, while also showing the ways in which migrants construct identities that are local and transnational. The challenge, though, is to identify both visible and less visible cultural landscapes of migration, because each gives important insights into the relationship between culture and migration. The

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century
Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape

Victorian touring actresses: Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape provides a new perspective on the on- and offstage lives of women working in nineteenth-century theatre, and affirms the central role of touring, both within the United Kingdom and in North America and Australasia. Drawing on extensive archival research, it features a cross-section of neglected performers whose dramatic specialisms range from tragedy to burlesque. Although they were employed as stars in their own time, their contribution to the industry has largely been forgotten. The book’s innovative organisation follows a natural lifecycle, enabling a detailed examination of the practical challenges and opportunities typically encountered by the actress at each stage of her working life. Individual experiences are scrutinised to highlight the career implications of strategies adopted to cope with the demands of the profession, the physical potential of the actress’s body, and the operation of gendered power on and offstage. Analysis is situated in a wide contextual framework and reveals how reception and success depended on the performer’s response to the changing political, economic, social and cultural landscape as well as to developments in professional practice and organisation. The book concludes with discussion of the legacies of the performers, linking their experiences to the present-day situation.