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Between economic regulation and European cultural policy

This book explains how and why the European Union has started to intervene in the cultural policy sector—understood here as the public policies aimed at supporting and regulating the arts and cultural industries. It is a comprehensive account of the Communitarisation process of the cultural policy sector. Before 1992, no legal basis for EU intervention in the field of culture appeared in the Treaties. Member states were, in any case, reluctant to share their competences in a policy sector considered to be an area of national sovereignty. In such circumstances, how was the Communitarisation of the policy sector ever possible? Who were the policy actors that played a role in this process? What were their motives? And why were certain actors more influential than others?

Abstract only
Annabelle Littoz-Monnet

Europeanisation of policies in the environmental and gender equality sectors were in favour of interventionist policies. EU institutions therefore had to satisfy the demands of ‘anti-liberal’ constituencies. For instance, Sbragia explains how ‘green-minded governments and environmentalist groups were the leaders, pulling the “laggards” towards accepting higher standards of environmental regulation than many could have agreed at the national level’ (2000: 293). By contrast, in the cultural policy sector, the groups which favoured the Europeanisation of the policy debate had a

in The European Union and culture
Annabelle Littoz-Monnet

) less desirable for dirigiste member states. Even without formally accepting the delegation of their competence in specific cultural policy sectors, member states were subject to the enforcement of EU competition rules by the ECJ and DG Competition within the Commission. Technological developments were also putting pressure on domestic legislative and regulatory arrangements. Thus, when member states negotiated over possible common solutions within the Council of Ministers – the only way through which the dirigistes could have tried to impose a market

in The European Union and culture
Annabelle Littoz-Monnet

by constant tensions between subnational, national and EU-level policy actors that were all competing to control policy. If various initiatives in the cultural sector had been taken in the 1960s by some member governments worried about the ‘purely’ economic nature of the European project, these were essentially symbolic endeavours, often implemented outside the Community framework. Communitarisation of the cultural policy sector began when a negative type of integration, which resulted essentially from judgements of the ECJ and decisions from the European

in The European Union and culture
Annabelle Littoz-Monnet

21 Conflicting models of policy intervention 21 Defining policy problems Policy ideas can define the political discourse and eventually limit the number of policy solutions perceived as desirable. In the cultural policy sector, two conflicting sets of beliefs were supported by the stakeholders involved in the policy-making process. Opposed to those who conceived the cultural sector as an economic market to be submitted to EU competition law were those who argued that a so-called ‘cultural specificity’ justifies the exemption of the cultural sector from market

in The European Union and culture