who coined the word ‘cyberspace,’ argue that it opens up entirely new possibilities in the human–machine interface, they frequently resort to antiquated notions of mind–body relations. What all these efforts demonstrate is that, as with the birth of any radically new idea, in order to visualize that idea and to make it meaningful to others, its creators are necessarily obliged to make at least some connections with existing ideas and ways of thinking – seeing the new in terms of the old, as it was described in Chapter 9. To a large extent, therefore, the Net, and

in The extended self
Analysing the example of data territorialisation

exchanged between domestic servers and computers should travel only over domestic infrastructure and therefore remain within territorial borders – borders that traditionally play a minor role in cyberspace. The mobility of data traffic should be limited and regulated for the sake of data security by keeping sensitive information out of the reach of Anglo-American intelligence agencies. The idea of data

in Security/ Mobility
Theorising the Cybergothic

This article theorizes the transgressive faculties of cyberspace‘s Gothic labyrinth, arguing that it is haunted by the ghost of material/information dualism. This ghost is embodied in cybergoth subculture: while cybergothic music creates a gateway to the borderland between biological and virtual realities, dancing enables cybergoths to transgress the boundaries between the two.

Gothic Studies
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Environmental activism online

The politics of cyberspace is of importance both for the future use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and within traditional political arenas, commerce and society itself. Within Britain there are many different political groups that have a presence online and utilise CMC, including for example members of the far right, human rights advocates, religious groups and environmental activists. This book examines the relationship between the strategies of environmental activist movements in Britain and their use of CMC. It explores how environmental activists negotiate the tensions and embrace the opportunities of CMC, and analyses the consequences of their actions for the forms and processes of environmental politics. It serves as a disjuncture from some broader critiques of the implications of CMC for society as a whole, concentrating on unpacking what CMC means for activists engaged in social change. Within this broad aim there are three specific objectives. It first evaluates how CMC provides opportunities for political expression and mobilization. Second, the book examines whether CMC use has different implications for established environmental lobbying organisations than it does for the non-hierarchical fluid networks of direct action groups. Third, it elucidates the influence of CMC on campaign strategies and consequently on business, government and regulatory responses to environmental activism.

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appropriating cyberspace, creating whole new virtual worlds for our extended selves to inhabit and find new forms of expression. As with earlier patterns of human technics, the ‘who’ and the ‘what’ are as indistinguishable in these virtual worlds as they are in the ‘real’ world, while the interactions between the two realms increasingly blur conventional descriptions of human experience. That chapter opens with a discussion of the manner in which architectural theorists like William Mitchell, following the method of metaphorical extension outlined in Chapter 9, make free use

in The extended self

1 Politics, social movements and technology According to Resnick (1998), the politics of cyberspace can be conceptualised in three distinct ways: politics within cyberspace – involving the internal operation of cyberspace and those who are online; politics which impacts upon cyberspace – the policies and legislation which affect cyberspace; and political uses of cyberspace – how the technology is used to affect political life offline. All three aspects need to be taken into consideration for they are all intertwined and all of them impact upon environmentalists

in Cyberprotest
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A new politics of protest?

: 137) Castells asks whether the internet has just an instrumental role for social movements or ‘is there a transformation of the rules of the sociopolitical game in cyberspace that ultimately affects the game itself – namely, the forms and goals of movements and political actors?’ In response he identifies three components of contemporary social movements for which CMC has been indispensable: the mobilisation around cultural values; organising in a non-hierarchical manner; and activists rooting themselves in their local contexts while acting at the global level. The

in Cyberprotest
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left behind. However, newspapers also focused on the role of the internet. Headlines from both the broadsheet and tabloid newspapers included; ‘A Riot From Cyberspace’, ‘Internet Message Sets Off A Rampage’ and ‘Virtual Chaos Baffles Police’. Journalists portrayed the J18 demonstrations as a ‘new departure for protest’ (Daily Express, 19 June 1999, p. 10). The defining difference was use of the internet which enabled activists to plan, plot and co-ordinate actions with low costs, anonymity (from police detection) and speed. At the same time they were apparently able

in Cyberprotest
Offline and online games, branding and humanitarianism at the Roskilde Festival

communication in relation to the Roskilde Festival, however, the festival progressively expands into cyber space . Cyberspace differs from place in that it is not experienced directly with all the senses, and thus the whole body. Furthermore, as we will show, cyberspace, and the media culture with which it is often linked, is a mediated reality that can be carefully manicured and controlled by specific

in Global humanitarianism and media culture

cyberspace and in developing new forms of action. Forms of cyberactivism include the use of CMC to trigger campaigns and co-ordinate action, to distribute tactical information, in email petitions and for direct lobbying (Harasim 1993; Myers 1994; Schwartz 1996; Walch 1999). In contrast to hacking, cyberactivism tends not to be treated as illegal or as particularly disruptive to other CMC users. The effectiveness of CMC to facilitate activists in achieving their goals in this way, however, remains debatable. All the case-study groups except CAT used CMC as one of their

in Cyberprotest