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This book is about the lives of refugee women in Britain and France. Who are they? Where do they come from? What happens to them when they arrive, while they wait for a decision on their claim for asylum, and after the decision, whether positive or negative? The book shows how laws and processes designed to meet the needs of men fleeing political persecution often fail to protect women from persecution in their home countries and fail to meet their needs during and after the decision-making process. It portrays refugee women as resilient, resourceful and potentially active participants in British and French social, political and cultural life. The book exposes the obstacles that make active participation difficult.

Power, consumers and urban culture

This book is concerned with the interaction of traditional politics, culture and voluntary groups, of local and national influences, of ideals and individuals. It looks at local government, social groups and housing policy in the twentieth century. Manchester is the focal point, providing the type of specific detail that only single-city studies can supply. Studying housing provides the most dynamic of all policy areas. The book is divided into three sections, providing it with a structure which highlights the overarching narrative and key themes. The first section looks at some of the main aspects of national policy and legislation across the twentieth century and how these were then interpreted by different local authorities. It shows that while central government provided a lead, encouraging a common approach, national policy was only ever generalised. Cities continued to produce policies specific to their own areas, highlighting the continuing importance of locality in studying the decision-making process. The second section examines the rise of municipal housing in Manchester, looking at the creation and influence of civic culture on the council. In contrast, although the third section considers the continuing influence of civic culture on policy after 1960, it also highlights the decline of municipal legitimacy from the late 1960s. It looks at how tenant frustration gave rise to angry outbursts and organised protests, leading to a challenge to council authority and forcing a change to the decision-making process.

A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector

be replicated in a variety of institutional contexts. We wanted to create an environment, in other words, in which it was possible to think historically about what did and did not work in the field, what contextual factors shaped decision-making processes in humanitarianism and whether the outcomes of those decisions – some of which had decades-long consequences and influenced humanitarian policy on a global scale – were expected. Having established those broad challenges, we set about developing a model of reflective practice that would help answer them. Early in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

suspension of programming, it is seen as sending a message about the severity of the situation to the authorities and the international community ( Humanitarian Practice Network, 2010 : 86). Relocating large numbers of civilians could also send a message about the severity of the situation, but when it comes to checklists of costs and benefits to be analysed as part of the decision-making process before evacuating the local civilian population, this point is not made. Instead, the risk of supporting the war aims of a party to conflict and, in the worst cases, contributing

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

, 179ff.). The question of which actors assert their ideas in defining a political problem and during the agenda-setting process can be of utmost significance for the further decision-making process. The manner in which a problem is specifically defined has direct ramifications for the potential measures, upon the basis of which the problem is supposed to be solved. As the questions asked invariably colour the answers received, it is important to consider who is asking the questions, and who (or what) causes environmental issues to be placed on the European agenda

in Environmental politics in the European Union

preferences strongly diverge, voting rules within the Council are also a contentious issue. Current debates within the Council focus on the efficiency of the decision-making process. France, in particular, supports the extension of the QMV rule to the cultural field, hoping that it could allow for the enactment of more substantial initiatives. In the Cannes Declaration of 15 May 2003, European Ministers of Culture stated clearly that European support actions should be decided with qualified majority voting (Cannes Declaration of European Culture Ministers 2003). The change

in The European Union and culture
Abstract only

Disraeli (Lord Beaconsfield), with a focus on the strategic perceptions and cultural aspects of imperialism. Chapter 3 examines the occupation of Cyprus from a more conventional approach – the aims, interests and decision-making processes of Lord Beaconsfield’s government. It attempts to draw links between the decision-making processes and the imperial imagination. Chapter 4 investigates the policy in

in British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878–1915
Alberto Ajón León’s ¿Qué bolá? (What’s Up?)

institutional context and the decision-making processes for Cuban writers and readers, highlighting especially the complex set of pressures – circumstantial and political – which shape the normal operations of contemporary Cuban publishing and create Cuba’s unusual literary culture. The process of selecting the novel for this study began in 2007, with discussions with the then Director of Letras Cubanas, Daniel García Santos. In 2009, further discussions were held with the interim ICL President, Fernando León Jacomino, the new Director of Letras Cubanas (and former head of

in Literary culture in Cuba
Open Access (free)
Flexible and pragmatic adaptation

-ordination mechanisms of the Grand Duchy. Some of the most distinctive characteristics will be discussed below.7 Decision-making processes at national level Perhaps the most striking characteristic of political life in Luxembourg is the manageability of relations. In this sense, nearly all decision-makers who deal with EU policy know each other personally. This almost daily and direct contact, along with Luxembourg’s democracy which is based on compromise, is advantageous insofar as the degree of bureaucratisation in the co-ordination of the various ministries is much lower than in

in Fifteen into one?
Debating Kosovo

. There were a number of key moments during the decision-making process which speak clearly to the imperative of inclusion. A meeting took place among the Contact Group on 8 October 1998 in a VIP lounge at Heathrow Airport. It was a crucial meeting in two respects. First, it played a significant role in determining a shift in policy towards permitting the use of military force, and

in Justifying violence