In 2002, the French party system seems to be demonstrating a fluidity, if not outright instability, equal to any period in the Fifth Republic's history. This book explores the extent to which this represents outright change and shifts within a stable structure. Portrayals of French political culture point to incivisme, individualism and a distrust of organizations. The book focuses on three fundamental political issues such as 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which appear in almost all political discussions and conflicts. It identifies different 'types' of state in political theory and looks at the major challenges to practical state sovereignty in the modern world. Discussing the concept of the nation in the United Kingdom, the book identifies both cultural and political aspects of nationhood. These include nation and state; race and nation; language and the nation; religion and national identity; government and nation; common historical and cultural ties; and a sense of 'nationhood'. Liberal democracy, defensive democracy and citizen democracy/republican democracy are explained. The book also analyses John Stuart Mill's and Isaiah Berlin's views on 'negative' and 'positive' freedom. Conservatism is one of the major intellectual and political strains of thought in Western culture. Liberalism has become the dominant ideology in the third millennium. Socialism sprang from the industrial revolution and the experience of the class that was its product, the working class. Events have made 'fascism' a term of political abuse rather than one of serious ideological analysis. Environmentalism and ecologism constitute one of the most recent ideological movements.
Democracy as a system of government. Here we can discern two forms of
democracy: ‘defensivedemocracy’ and ‘citizen
democracy’/‘republican democracy’; democracy and
legitimising government; majority rule and democracy; equality of citizenship rights; public opinion in democracies; the rule of law and democracy.
Democracy as a system of government
Ancient Greeks, such as Aristotle in
Preventing farright extremism by curbing Roma ‘criminality and social
pathologies’ in the Czech Republic
vulnerabilities. It was at that time when Karl Loewenstein coined
the legal-philosophical principle of militant (defensive) democracy,
which would be capable of defending the “vulnerable spots in
the democratic system” (Loewenstein 1937a : 431). The literature on the vulnerability of liberal
democracies has seen another spike in interest in the recent years,
reflecting anxieties about the challenge of illiberal populism