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Shetland 1800–2000
Author: Lynn Abrams

This book is about the relationship between myth-making and historical materiality. It is a singular case study of the position and experience of women in a 'peripheral' society distanced - geographically, economically and culturally - from the British mainland. The book first looks at women and gender relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries through examination of the construction of historical myth. It then looks at economic and demographic factors that underpinned the materiality of women's dominance of culture. An understanding of women's work patterns and experiences is central to any analysis of women's lives in Shetland and the gender relations contingent upon this. Shetland women were autonomous, independent workers whose day-to-day productive experiences implicated them in all sorts of social and economic relationships outside the home. The book argues that women's culture in Shetland actually had only a marginal connection to the islands' dominant economic activity - fishing. It also argues that the negligible figures for children born outside wedlock are a poor guide to understanding the moral order in nineteenth-century Shetland. Like the new visitors to Shetland, the historians of the early twenty-first century would ordinarily reach the same conclusions. They would do so, at root, because the authors are equipped with the same myth system of discourse about what constitutes women's subordination and power. The book seeks to navigate the issue of 'power' by approaching it in terms which the Shetland woman understood in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Alex Balch

process; second, to discuss the application of these approaches in the specific cases of the UK and Spain, and third, to specify a range of possible intervening variables that could affect ideas and knowledge about migration, such as the political system, welfare state, labour market and demographic factors, and migratory history. The contemporary governance of labour migration in Europe Since the late 1990s there has been a massive increase in immigration to Europe – with rates tripling by the early years of the twenty-first century (CEC 2008a: 55). However, the signs

in Managing labour migration in Europe
Abstract only
Jarle Trondal, Martin Marcussen, Torbjörn Larsson, and Frode Veggeland

wider institutional environment within which the WTO and its Secretariat are embedded. The next section unpacks the meso-level, i.e. the formal organisation of the WTO Secretariat as well as its function within the WTO system. The third section focuses on the micro-level, i.e. the composition of the staff, recruitment procedures, years of tenure, nationality and other demographic factors. The general aim of the chapter is to explore the anatomy of the WTO Secretariat as well as the functions and roles of the Secretariat and its officials and the wider context of both

in Unpacking international organisations
Abstract only
Angela McCarthy

significant for distinguishing a number of themes which guide the book, including multiple motives for migration and return, the anxious transition to and initial reception in new societies, the keen attachments to social networks and ethnic societies, and the energetic retention of cultural identities. Each of these will now be considered in turn. Migrant testimonies capture vividly and emotionally the range of multiple motives propelling Irish and Scots on to distant shores. Economic, social, political, and demographic factors combined, revealing that migration arose out

in Personal narratives of Irish and Scottish migration, 1921–65
A nascent realignment?
Rory Costello

, 2007, 2011, 2016 (INES2). Data weighted for demographic factors and party vote shares. 91 Party identification in the wake of the crisis respondents who are ‘close to’ or ‘a little bit closer to’ a party (i.e. partisans plus ‘leaners’), while the bottom panel excludes ‘leaners’. The results using the more encompassing measure of partisanship (the top panel) are quite different from those for the earlier period reported in Mair and Marsh (2004). First of all, as we have already seen, there is no consistent pattern over time in the level of partisanship: a decrease

in The post-crisis Irish voter
Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

widowers could not be determined). 26 How many of these developments can be ascribed to demographic factors? First, variations in the age at contracting a first marriage, it has already been argued, exerted a powerful influence on the whole process of household formation (see above, p. 493). Second, there is the impact on the age structure of a population of changes in fertility, themselves the result primarily of the increase in nuptiality during the eighteenth century. 27 In 1696, approximately the mid-point of the earlier period of listings, fertility was low, and

in The houses of history
Jane Roscoe and Craig Hight

’s social experiences (especially those based on differences in such socio-demographic factors as gender, age, class and ethnicity) provide for rich and varied discursive resources which have the potential to shape the nature of such social interactions. A more complex understanding of any viewer’s interpretation would need to consider the specific circumstances in which an individual or group response to a text is formed; that is

in Faking it
Alan Warde, Jessica Paddock, and Jennifer Whillans

significant burden upon household budgets. The hierarchy of styles is roughly correlated with the price of a meal, so those who are well versed in restaurants delivering many culinary traditions require significant extra funds. Nevertheless, it is not just money that matters. Models always show that other socio-demographic factors play a role. Taste, when expressed through activity, is always a matter of opportunity, and in this field, as in many others, cosmopolitan London offers more options. Yet social position remains a powerful determinant of both the breadth and

in The social significance of dining out
Catherine J. Frieman

punctuated beginnings of metal in different regions reflected a complex and not necessarily identical integration process shaped by demography and social ties. In other words, and returning to our textile metaphor, the need or desire for metallurgy in these peripheral areas might be envisaged as the shuttle guiding the weft of kinship ties (through which metallurgical knowledge appears to have been communicated) as it weaves back and forth through an ever-shifting warp of complex economic, social, and demographic factors ( Fig. 3.3 ). Figure 3.3 The warp and weft of

in An archaeology of innovation
Orian Brook, Dave O’Brien, and Mark Taylor

asked people whether they’d ever worked for free at all. We also asked about the varieties of free work, such as whether they’d done an unpaid internship, and whether they’d been paid for all the hours they’d worked in the previous month. These figures are broken down by several demographic factors: age group, ethnic group, social class origin, whether they report having a disability, gender, and which part of the cultural and creative industries they work in. Figure 6.1 Fractions of interviewees having ever worked for free. These results make it clear that

in Culture is bad for you