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The politics of Turkish emigration to Europe

Turkey has shown an unprecedented interest in its diaspora only since the early 2000s. This book provides the first in-depth examination of the institutionalisation of Turkey’s diaspora engagement policy since the Justice and Development Party’s rise to power in 2002 and the Turkish diaspora’s new role as an agent of diplomatic goals. It also explores how Turkey’s growing sphere of influence over its overseas population affects intra-diaspora politics and Turkey’s diplomatic relations with Europe.

The book is based on fourteen months of fieldwork in Turkey, France and Germany. Drawing on more than 110 interviews conducted with representatives of a wide range of diaspora organisations originating in Turkey as well as with Turkish, French, German and EU policymakers and journalists, supplemented with an analysis of official documents and news sources, it argues that Turkey has conceived of the conservative elements of its diaspora as a tool of political leverage, mobilised towards enhancing Turkey’s official diplomatic endeavours. At the same time, however, Turkey’s selective engagement with its expatriates has complicated relations with disregarded diaspora groups and Europe.

This study contributes to the growing literature on diasporas and diplomacy. Diasporas have become identified as influential actors that transform relations at the state-to-state level and blur the division between the domestic and the foreign. A case study of Turkey’s diasporas is thus a significant study at a time when emigrants from Turkey form the largest Muslim community in Europe and when issues of diplomacy, migration, citizenship and authoritarianism have become even more salient.

Abstract only
John McLeod

as a consequence of twentieth-century migrations and these often take the themes of migration and diaspora as their subject matter. Throughout the twentieth century, but especially since the end of the Second World War, the former colonising nations have experienced the arrival of many peoples from once-colonised countries who have established new homes at the old colonial centres. The reasons for migration have been variable. In Britain, some colonial peoples were specifically recruited by the government to cope with labour shortages, such as the drive after the

in Beginning postcolonialism (second edition)
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Highland migrants in the Scottish city
T. M. Devine

16 DIASPORA: HIGHLAND MIGRANTS IN THE SCOTTISH CITY In the winter of 1850 the Scottish press reported in full and harrowing detail the sufferings of a group of crofters and cottars from the island of Barra who had been evicted by their landlord, John Gordon of Cluny, and forced to make their way to the mainland and from there to the southern cities. They were destitute and hungry, subsisting by begging and charity in a society of strangers, and seemed to symbolise the plight of the evicted Highlander and the social catastrophe that had engulfed the crofting

in Clanship to crofters’ war
Religion, persecution and identity in Britain and Ireland, 1558–1794
J.C.D. Clark

1 Reconceptualising diaspora: religion, persecution and identity in Britain and Ireland, 1558–1794 J.C.D. Clark The subject revealed In 1743 was published, in the Austrian Netherlands, a small book of Christian devotion. It was a work in a penitential, ascetic and contemplative spiritual idiom that has recently been associated with the remarkable revival of French monasticism during the early seventeenth-century wars of religion, an idiom that has also been held to have been supported especially by French elite and royalist families.1 So far, it was not unusual

in British and Irish diasporas
The AGBU in Soviet Armenia, 1920–30s
Vahé Tachjian

The early 1920s were pivotal years for the emerging post-genocide Armenian diaspora. After the destruction of Armenian collective existence in the Ottoman Empire (with the exception of Istanbul), inter-war attempts to create a new homeland for Armenian Genocide survivors within the frontiers of the former Ottoman Empire failed. Tens of thousands of refugees were therefore forced to start new lives in the Middle East, Europe and the Americas, facing many challenges of reconstructing community life and identity. 1 These processes coincided with the fall of the

in Aid to Armenia
Societies, cultures and ideologies

Migrations of people, ideas, beliefs and cultures have closely shaped relations between the nations of the British and Irish Isles. In part this was the result of Anglo-imperialism, which expanded from a heartland around London and the South of England, first, then through the ‘Celtic fringe’, creating hybrid peoples who were both Irish and British, before spreading across the globe. At times, Catholics of both islands were exiled from this narrative of nation-building. Political pressures, economic opportunities, a spirit of adventure and sometimes force, spurred the creation of multiple diasporas from the British and Irish Isles. This book brings together a range of leading scholars who explore the origins, varieties and extent of these diasporas.

Wherever Britons and the Irish went, they created new identities as neo-Britons, neo-Angles, neo-Irish, neo-Scots: persons who were colonials, new nationals, and yet still linked to their old country and home nations. British and Irish emigrants also perpetuated elements of their distinctive national cultures in music, literature, saints’ days and broader, diffuse interactions with fellow nationals.

These especially commissioned essays explore processes of diaspora-formation from the English Catholic exiles of the sixteenth century, through the ‘Wild Geese’, Jacobites, traders and servants of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to the modern colonising diasporas associated with the modern age of mass migration.

Diaspora for development?
Mark Boyle
Rob Kitchin
, and
Delphine Ancien

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 80 4 Ireland’s diaspora strategy: diaspora for development? Mark Boyle, Rob Kitchin and Delphine Ancien Introduction In 2011, when the population of the Irish Republic stood at 4.58 million, over 70 million people worldwide claimed Irish descent, and 3.2 million Irish passport holders, including 800,000 Irish-born citizens, lived overseas (Ancien et al., 2009). Despite being varied and complex, it is often assumed that a strong relationship has prevailed between the Irish diaspora and Ireland, with the diaspora

in Migrations
Ipek Demir

. ( Hall, 2007 : 151) This chapter examines diaspora as translation – in other words, by using the insights of translation studies, I wish to rethink diaspora theorising. This perspective is different from the two central approaches I identified and critically engaged with in Chapter 1 , namely ‘diaspora as an ideal type’ and ‘diaspora as hybridity

in Diaspora as translation and decolonisation
'Making a fuss' in diaspora and in the homeland
Ipek Demir

from. (Benjamin Zephaniah, 2009 ) As I began to discuss in the earlier chapters, another reason for introducing conceptualisations of translation is that through their translations and foreignisations, diasporas have the potential to become agents of decolonisation in both the homeland and the new home. Diasporas bring various disruptions and

in Diaspora as translation and decolonisation

This book proposes a novel way of conceptualising diaspora by examining how diasporas do translation and decolonisation. It critically engages with, and goes beyond, two dominant theorisations of diaspora, which are coined ‘diaspora as an ideal-type approach’ and ‘diaspora as hybridity approach’. If diaspora is to have analytical purchase, it should illuminate a specific angle of migration or migrancy. The aspect defended in this book is how diasporas do translation and decolonisation.

The book explores such issues by conceiving of diasporas as the archetypal translators, who put new identities, perspectives and ideologies into circulation. They can domesticate, rewrite, erase and foreignise. They bring disruptions and destabilisations. The book examines such processes by advancing a variety of useful conceptual tools and heuristic devices for investigating diasporas, such as ‘diaspora as rewriting and transformation’, ‘diaspora as erasure and exclusion’, ‘diaspora as a tension between foreignisation and domestication’, ‘radical inclusion’ and ‘radical remembering’, with a specific focus on and examples of diasporas in the Global North. It also provides a detailed empirical study of Kurdish diaspora in Europe and unpacks how ethno-political translations of their identity are central for the transnational battles of Kurds, including how they undo colonisation, carrying out both foreignisations and domestications in their engagements with the Global North, and exposing links between their predicament and Europe. Additionally, the book considers the backlash to diasporas of colour in the Global North through an examination of the increasing discourses of ‘anti-multiculturalism’ and ‘the left-behind’/‘traditional’ working class.