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Societies, cultures and ideologies

Migrations of people, ideas, beliefs and cultures have closely shaped relations between the nations of the British and Irish Isles. In part this was the result of Anglo-imperialism, which expanded from a heartland around London and the South of England, first, then through the ‘Celtic fringe’, creating hybrid peoples who were both Irish and British, before spreading across the globe. At times, Catholics of both islands were exiled from this narrative of nation-building. Political pressures, economic opportunities, a spirit of adventure and sometimes force, spurred the creation of multiple diasporas from the British and Irish Isles. This book brings together a range of leading scholars who explore the origins, varieties and extent of these diasporas.

Wherever Britons and the Irish went, they created new identities as neo-Britons, neo-Angles, neo-Irish, neo-Scots: persons who were colonials, new nationals, and yet still linked to their old country and home nations. British and Irish emigrants also perpetuated elements of their distinctive national cultures in music, literature, saints’ days and broader, diffuse interactions with fellow nationals.

These especially commissioned essays explore processes of diaspora-formation from the English Catholic exiles of the sixteenth century, through the ‘Wild Geese’, Jacobites, traders and servants of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to the modern colonising diasporas associated with the modern age of mass migration.

Theories, concepts and new perspectives

Bringing together leading authorities on Irish women and migration, this book offers a significant reassessment of the place of women in the Irish diaspora. It demonstrates the important role played by women in the construction of Irish diasporic identities, comparing Irish women's experience in Britain, Canada , New Zealand and the United States. The book considers how the Catholic Church could be a focal point for women's Irish identity in Britain. It examines how members of the Ladies' Orange Benevolent Association (LOBA) maintained a sense of Irish Protestant identity, focused on their associational life in female Orange lodges. The book offers a lens on Irish society, and on countries where they settled, and considerable scope for comparative analysis of the impact of different cultures and societies on women's lives. It reviews key debates in Transnational Studies (TS) and Diaspora Studies (DS) before discussing the particular contribution of DS in framing 1990s study of migrant and non-migrant Irish women. Feminist and queer theory scholarship in Irish DS has begun to address the gender and sexual politics of diaspora by attending to the dynamics of boundary expansion, queering and dissolution. The book suggests that religion can be both a 'bright' and a 'blurry' boundary, while examining how religious identities intersect with ethnicity and gender. It also includes the significance of the categories of gender and generation, and their intersection with ethnicity in the context of the official London St Patrick's Day Festival.

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The politics of Turkish emigration to Europe
Author: Ayca Arkilic

Turkey has shown an unprecedented interest in its diaspora only since the early 2000s. This book provides the first in-depth examination of the institutionalisation of Turkey’s diaspora engagement policy since the Justice and Development Party’s rise to power in 2002 and the Turkish diaspora’s new role as an agent of diplomatic goals. It also explores how Turkey’s growing sphere of influence over its overseas population affects intra-diaspora politics and Turkey’s diplomatic relations with Europe.

The book is based on fourteen months of fieldwork in Turkey, France and Germany. Drawing on more than 110 interviews conducted with representatives of a wide range of diaspora organisations originating in Turkey as well as with Turkish, French, German and EU policymakers and journalists, supplemented with an analysis of official documents and news sources, it argues that Turkey has conceived of the conservative elements of its diaspora as a tool of political leverage, mobilised towards enhancing Turkey’s official diplomatic endeavours. At the same time, however, Turkey’s selective engagement with its expatriates has complicated relations with disregarded diaspora groups and Europe.

This study contributes to the growing literature on diasporas and diplomacy. Diasporas have become identified as influential actors that transform relations at the state-to-state level and blur the division between the domestic and the foreign. A case study of Turkey’s diasporas is thus a significant study at a time when emigrants from Turkey form the largest Muslim community in Europe and when issues of diplomacy, migration, citizenship and authoritarianism have become even more salient.

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John McLeod

as a consequence of twentieth-century migrations and these often take the themes of migration and diaspora as their subject matter. Throughout the twentieth century, but especially since the end of the Second World War, the former colonising nations have experienced the arrival of many peoples from once-colonised countries who have established new homes at the old colonial centres. The reasons for migration have been variable. In Britain, some colonial peoples were specifically recruited by the government to cope with labour shortages, such as the drive after the

in Beginning postcolonialism (second edition)
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Highland migrants in the Scottish city
T. M. Devine

16 DIASPORA: HIGHLAND MIGRANTS IN THE SCOTTISH CITY In the winter of 1850 the Scottish press reported in full and harrowing detail the sufferings of a group of crofters and cottars from the island of Barra who had been evicted by their landlord, John Gordon of Cluny, and forced to make their way to the mainland and from there to the southern cities. They were destitute and hungry, subsisting by begging and charity in a society of strangers, and seemed to symbolise the plight of the evicted Highlander and the social catastrophe that had engulfed the crofting

in Clanship to crofters’ war
Religion, persecution and identity in Britain and Ireland, 1558–1794
J.C.D. Clark

1 Reconceptualising diaspora: religion, persecution and identity in Britain and Ireland, 1558–1794 J.C.D. Clark The subject revealed In 1743 was published, in the Austrian Netherlands, a small book of Christian devotion. It was a work in a penitential, ascetic and contemplative spiritual idiom that has recently been associated with the remarkable revival of French monasticism during the early seventeenth-century wars of religion, an idiom that has also been held to have been supported especially by French elite and royalist families.1 So far, it was not unusual

in British and Irish diasporas
Migration, ethnicity and association, 1730s–1950s

From the early eighteenth century, a vibrant English associational culture emerged that was, by many measures, ethnic in character. English ethnic organisations spread across North America from east to west, and from north to south, later becoming a truly global phenomenon when reaching Australasia in the later nineteenth century. This books charts the nature, extent and character of these developments. It explores the main activities of English ethnic societies, including their charitable work; collective mutual aid; their national celebration; their expressions of imperial and monarchical devotion; and the extent to which they evinced transnational communication with the homeland and with English immigrants in other territories. The English demonstrated and English people abroad demonstrated and experienced competitive and sometimes conflictual ethnic character, and so the discussion also uncovers aspects of enmity towards an Irish immigrant community, especially in the US, whose increasingly political sense of community brought them into bitter dispute with English immigrants whom they soon outnumbered. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the extent of English ethnic associational culture in North America was such that it resonated within England herself, resulting in the formation of a central organization designed to coordinate the promotion of English culture. This was the Royal Society of St George. Ultimately, the book documents that the English expressed their identity through processes of associating, mutualism and self-expression that were, by any measure, both ethnic and diasporic in character. The English Diaspora is based on a very large amount of untapped primary materials from archives in the United States, Canada, and the UK relating to specific locations such as New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Toronto, Ottawa, and Kingston, and London. Thousands of newspaper articles have been trawled. Several long runs of English associational periodicals have been garnered and utilized. Comparative and transnational perspectives beyond the US and Canada are enabled by the discovery of manuscript materials and periodicals relating to the Royal Society of St George.

The AGBU in Soviet Armenia, 1920–30s
Vahé Tachjian

The early 1920s were pivotal years for the emerging post-genocide Armenian diaspora. After the destruction of Armenian collective existence in the Ottoman Empire (with the exception of Istanbul), inter-war attempts to create a new homeland for Armenian Genocide survivors within the frontiers of the former Ottoman Empire failed. Tens of thousands of refugees were therefore forced to start new lives in the Middle East, Europe and the Americas, facing many challenges of reconstructing community life and identity. 1 These processes coincided with the fall of the

in Aid to Armenia
Diaspora for development?
Mark Boyle, Rob Kitchin, and Delphine Ancien

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 80 4 Ireland’s diaspora strategy: diaspora for development? Mark Boyle, Rob Kitchin and Delphine Ancien Introduction In 2011, when the population of the Irish Republic stood at 4.58 million, over 70 million people worldwide claimed Irish descent, and 3.2 million Irish passport holders, including 800,000 Irish-born citizens, lived overseas (Ancien et al., 2009). Despite being varied and complex, it is often assumed that a strong relationship has prevailed between the Irish diaspora and Ireland, with the diaspora

in Migrations
Ipek Demir

. ( Hall, 2007 : 151) This chapter examines diaspora as translation – in other words, by using the insights of translation studies, I wish to rethink diaspora theorising. This perspective is different from the two central approaches I identified and critically engaged with in Chapter 1 , namely ‘diaspora as an ideal type’ and ‘diaspora as hybridity

in Diaspora as translation and decolonisation