Liverpool occupies a prominent position in the contemporary popular imagination. In spite of decades of economic decline, urban decay and a name associated by some with poverty and crime, the city's reputation is by no means a negative one. The book is a collection of essays that focuses on the strength of Liverpool's merchant marine, representing both informal and formal empire over centuries. It discusses the interracial relationships in 1950s and 1960s Liverpool to demonstrate that many African and Afro-Caribbean sailors (and others) married or had relationships with white women. Given existing deficiencies in the historiographies of both Liverpool and the British Empire, the book aims to reassess both Liverpool's role within the British imperial system and the impact on the port city of its colonial connections. Liverpool's success has often been attributed to, and marred by, its being the leader in the slave trade after 1750. Napoleonic Wars were a period of great turbulence and difficulty for the Liverpool commercial community. Liverpool is perceived as a diasporic city, however, its ambiguous nineteenth-century identity reflected the tensions of its complex migrant connections. An analysis of Liverpool's business connections with South America reveals its relative commercial decline and the notion of 'gentlemanly capitalism'. The African ethnology collection of National Museums Liverpool's (NML) ethnology collections are displayed in the 'World Cultures' gallery of the World Museum Liverpool, which opened in 2005. Liverpool is perhaps not exceptional, though its networks are notable and striking.
European centre of emigration’, and Liverpool’s importance
in the worldwide scattering of European peoples has been an element in
its heritage ever since. It is mainly in this sense that Liverpool is
perceived as a diasporiccity, but the term diaspora must also include
the city as the residence of diasporic settlers and sojourners. This
chapter seeks to outline the scale and character of
Sheryllynne Haggerty, Anthony Webster and Nicholas J. White
important British port for emigration to Canada, particularly by the end
of the nineteenth century, but the vast majority of passengers from
Liverpool between 1825 and the First World War were destined for the
USA. At the same time, Herson’s investigation into Liverpool as a diasporiccity challenges simplistic notions of the cultural exchanges of
immigrants into and migrants through the city. Whereas the history of
Irish nationalism, the rise of Labour and the Catholic Herald, 1888–1918
acute in working-class communities across Britain.2
Studies of the early Labour Party have tended to rely on institutional
sources and on the political papers of key individuals, while the ‘Irish
question’ has been viewed all too often from a predominantly Irish
domestic perspective.3 This rationale has largely dictated the type and
range of sources consulted. Yet, these shifting political allegiances were
particularly dynamic in major diasporiccities such as London, Glasgow,
Manchester, Newcastle and Liverpool, which coincidentally were key
centres on the
: examining identity and cultures of exclusion in rural England ’, Ethnicities , 6 : 2 ( 2006 ), 159 – 77 .
42 See Agyeman and Spooner, ‘Ethnicity and the rural environment’; Neal, ‘Rural landscapes, representations and racism’; and Chakraborti and Garland (eds), Rural Racism .
43 See Williams, ‘Revisiting the rural/race debates’, 741.
44 See Ballard (ed.), Desh Pardesh ; Peach, ‘South Asian migration and settlement in Great Britain, 1951–2001’; Gilliat-Ray, Muslims in Britain , p. 210; and William Gould , ‘ Diasporiccities in Britain: Bradford
Immigration, welfare and housing in Britain and France, 1945–1974
Jim House and Andrew S. Thompson
residentially concentrated, and thus more visible, Chinese
community: ‘“Stirring Spectacles of Cosmopolitan
Animation”: Liverpool as a DiasporicCity,
1825–1913’ in S. Haggerty, A. Webster and N. J. White
(eds), The Empire in One City? Liverpool’s Inconvenient
Imperial Past (Manchester, 2008), pp. 55–74.
conventional application of the term ‘diaspora space’, see J. Herson,
‘“Stirring Spectacles of Cosmopolitan Animation”: Liverpool as a diasporiccity, 1825–1913’, in S. Haggerty, A. Webster and N. J. White (eds), The Empire
in One City? Liverpool’s Inconvenient Imperial Past (Manchester: Manchester
University Press, 2008), p. 69.
197 Belfast Weekly News, 21 December 1922. For anti-Catholic sentiment in
Australia after the Great War, see Fitzpatrick, ‘Exporting brotherhood’, 292.
198 Belfast Weekly News, 18 January 1923.
199 Belfast Weekly News, 24