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The great American film critic Manny Farber memorably declared space to be the most dramatic stylistic entity in the visual arts. He posited three primary types of space in fiction cinema: the field of the screen, the psychological space of the actor, and the area of experience and geography that the film covers. This book brings together five French directors who have established themselves as among the most exciting and significant working today: Bruno Dumont, Robert Guediguian, Laurent Cantet, Abdellatif Kechiche, and Claire Denis. It proposes that people think about cinematographic space in its many different forms simultaneously (screenspace, landscape, narrative space, soundscape, spectatorial space). Through a series of close and original readings of selected films, it posits a new 'space of the cinematic subject'. Dumont's attraction to real settings and locality suggests a commitment to realism. New forms and surfaces of spectatorship provoke new sensations and engender new kinds of perception, as well as new ways of understanding and feeling space. The book interrogates Guediguian's obsessive portrayal of one particular city, Marseilles. Entering into the spaces of work and non-work in Cantet's films, it asks what constitutes space and place within the contemporary field of social relations. The book also engages with cultural space as the site of social integration and metissage in the work of Kechiche, his dialogues with diasporic communities and highly contested urban locales. Denis's film work contains continually shifting points of passage between inside and outside, objective and subjective, in the restless flux.

Italian Scottish experience in World War II
Author: Wendy Ugolini

Italy's declaration of war on Britain in June 1940 had devastating consequences for Italian immigrant families living in Scotland signalling their traumatic construction as the 'enemy other'. This book takes a case study of a long-established immigrant group and explores how notions of belonging and citizenship are undermined at a time of war. The experiences of the Italian population in Britain during World War Two illuminate the complex and diverse ways in which ethnicity interacts with a sense of belonging to a nation at a time of conflict. There is a tendency within leading British Italian texts to portray the Italians as somehow immune from the difficulties faced by other ethnic minority groups. This book looks at the role of the Fasci all'estero, clubs set up by Benito Mussolini's regime in order to 'fascistise' Italian diasporic communities in the inter-war period. It shows how the wartime configuration of Italians as the 'enemy within' served to dramatically reinforce a sense of 'otherness' and not 'belonging' already prevalent amongst the children of Italian immigrants. The book also offers a critical overview of current representations of Italian internment in Britain, in particular the ways in which the rhetorical device of 'Collar the lot!' is utilised to give the misleading impression that 'all' Italians were interned. The impact of the government's policy of relocating Italian women from coastal regions, the narratives of the Pioneer Corps, and the Italians' declarations of alienage are also discussed.

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Corinne Fowler and Lynne Pearce

’s flagship ‘migrant’ city, such policies are already having a negative impact on the daily lives of the city’s diasporic communities in terms of increased personal and institutional racism and obstructions to international travel (including, of course, visits to and from their countries of origin). Combined with the dramatic increase in Islamophobia in Britain during the past decade, partly as a consequence of 9/11 and – within the life of the ‘Moving Manchester’ project – 7/7, this entrenchment of the nationstate and its border security must register in the conclusion to

in Postcolonial Manchester
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Manchester and the devolution of British literary culture
Corinne Fowler and Lynne Pearce

, Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi, Middle Eastern, Irish, Scottish, Welsh and German diasporic communities and representing a wide range of religious affiliations (Christian, Muslim, Hindi, Sikh, Jewish). As detailed in Chapters 2 and 4, a suggestive example of Mancunian writers’ alternative imaginative cartography of Manchester can be found in the poetry of Seán Body, a founder member of the Manchester Irish Writers’ group. Body’s long poetry sequence Seasons (2003) makes a concerted effort to dispel the imaginative legacy of Friedrich Engels’s 1844 work The Condition of

in Postcolonial Manchester
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Algerian national cinemas
Guy Austin

film-making generally, ‘co-produced films have succeeded in representing Arab cinema abroad while marginalizing Arab mainstream cinema’, for example favouring auteur cinema over genre cinema. She concludes: ‘In this way, Western hegemony over regional productions has been reinforced on the financial and ideological levels’ (Shafik 2007 : 42). If the audiences for Algerian films include diasporic

in Algerian national cinema
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Wendy Ugolini

functioned in the post-war period and, in particular, how the notion of Italiani, brava gente serves to obscure Italy’s Fascist and wartime record and suppress narratives of complicity, culpability and responsibility. This chapter looks at the role of the Fasci all’estero, clubs set up by Mussolini’s regime in order to ‘fascistise’ Italian diasporic communities in the inter-war period and examines how, in Scotland, elite-led memory promotes the idea of the Fasci as social clubs, denying their political and propagandistic dimension. Using the Edinburgh Fascio as a case

in Experiencing war as the ‘enemy other’
James S. Williams

exclusion in order to render present those who are normally disenfranchised from the networks of representation. Chapter 5 engages with cultural space as the site of social integration and métissage in the work of Kechiche who operates from within the context of France’s marginal and diasporic communities while always in dialogue with the white mainstream in recognisable, highly contested urban locales. Focusing on Kechiche’s strategies of ellipsis, performance, and ‘free’ sound in language and music, I show how Kechiche frames and ‘deframes’ the culturally loaded

in Space and being in contemporary French cinema
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Identity, heritage and creative research practice in Basilicata, southern Italy

Sonic ethnography explores the role of sound-making and listening practices in the formation of local identities in the southern Italian region of Basilicata. The book uses a combination of text, photography and sound recording to investigate soundful cultural performances such as tree rituals, carnivals, pilgrimages, events promoting cultural heritage and more informal musical performances. Its approach demonstrates how in the acoustic domain tradition is made and disrupted, power struggles take place and acoustic communities are momentarily brought together in shared temporality and space. This book underlines how an attention to sound-making, recording and listening practices can bring innovative contributions to the ethnography of an area that has been studied by Italian and foreign scholars since the 1950s. The approaches of the classic anthropological scholarship on the region have become one of the forces at play in a complex field where discourses on a traditional past, politics of heritage and transnational diasporic communities interact. The book’s argument is carried forward not just by textual means, but also through the inclusion of six ‘sound-chapters’, that is, compositions of sound recordings themed so as to interact with the topic of the corresponding textual chapter, and through a large number of colour photographs. Two methodological chapters, respectively about doing research in sound and on photo-ethnography, explain the authors’ approach to field research and to the making of the book.

Diaspora space and the devolution of literary culture

Postcolonial Manchester offers a radical new perspective on Britain's devolved literary cultures by focusing on Manchester's vibrant, multicultural literary scene. This book presents the North West of England as quintessential 'diaspora space' and contributes to a better understanding of the region in social, cultural and aesthetic terms. It examines the way in which stories, poems and plays set in locales such as 'the Curry Mile' and Moss Side, have attempted to reshape Manchester's collective visions. The book features a broad demographic of authors and texts emanating from different diasporic communities and representing a wide range of religious affiliations. Manchester's black and Asian writers have struggled to achieve recognition within the literary mainstream, partly as a result of exclusion from London-centric, transnational publishing houses. Manchester's unfortunate reputation as one of Britain's 'crime capitals' is analysed by the use of fiction to stretch and complicate more popular explanations. A historical overview of Manchester's literary anthologies is presented through a transition from a writing that paid tribute to political resistance to more complex political statements, and focuses on the short story as a literary mode. The book combines close readings of some of the city's best-known performance poets such as Lemn Sissay and SuAndi with analysis of the literary cultures that have both facilitated and challenged their art. The book affords readers the opportunity to hear many of the chapter authors 'in their own words' by reflecting on how they themselves in terms of the literary mainstream and their identities.

Power, mobility, and the state

How does migration feature in states’ diplomatic agendas across the Middle East? Until recently, popular wisdom often held that migration is an important socio-economic, rather than political, phenomenon. Migration diplomacy in the Middle East counters this expectation by providing the first systematic examination of the foreign policy importance of migrants, refugees, and diasporas in the Global South. Gerasimos Tsourapas examines how emigration-related processes become embedded in governmental practices of establishing and maintaining power; how states engage with migrant and diasporic communities residing in the West; how oil-rich Arab monarchies have extended their support for a number of sending states’ ruling regimes via cooperation on labour migration; and, finally, how labour and forced migrants may serve as instruments of political leverage. Drawing on multi-sited fieldwork and data collection and employing a range of case studies across the Middle East and North Africa, Tsourapas enhances existing understandings of regional migration governance in the Global South. The book identifies how the management of cross-border mobility in the Middle East is not primarily dictated by legal, moral, or human rights considerations but driven by states’ actors key concern – political power. Offering key insights into the history and current migration policy dilemmas, the book will provide both novices and specialists with fresh insights on migration into, out of, and across the modern Middle East.