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Games within games
Editor: J. Simon Rofe

The purpose of this book is to critically enhance the appreciation of diplomacy and sport in global affairs from the perspective of practitioners and scholars. The book will make an important new contribution to at least two distinct fields: diplomacy and sport, as well as to those concerned with history, politics, sociology and international relations. The critical analysis the book provides explores the linkages across these fields, particularly in relation to soft power and public diplomacy, and is supported by a wide range of sources and methodologies. The book draws in a range of scholars across these different fields, and includes esteemed FIFA scholar Professor Alan Tomlinson. Tomlinson addresses diplomacy within the world’s global game of Association Football, while other subjects include the rise of mega-sport events as sites of diplomacy, new consideration of Chinese ping-pong diplomacy prior to the 1970s and the importance of boycotts in sport – particularly in relation to newly explored dimensions of the boycotts of the 1980 and 1984 Olympic Games. The place of non-state actors is explored throughout: be they individual or institutions they perform a crucial role as conduits of the transactions of sport and diplomacy. Based on twentieth- and twenty-first-century evidence, the book acknowledges antecedents from the ancient Olympics to the contemporary era, and in its conclusions offers avenues for further study based on the future sport and diplomacy relationship. The book has a strong international basis because it covers a broad range of countries, their diplomatic relationship with sport and is written by a truly transnational cast of authors. The intense media scrutiny of the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup and other international sports will also contribute to the global interest in this volume.

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Jennifer Mori

1 Why diplomacy? In a celebrated chapter in his England in the Age of the American Revolution (1930) Sir Lewis Namier sought to answer the question why did men go into Parliament? His answer may be summed up that it was fashionable and profitable to be a Member of Parliament. If we ask why men went into the diplomatic service in the eighteenth century we must find a different set of answers, since entry to this service was both unfashionable and on the whole unprofitable. (Horn, The British Diplomatic Service, p. 85) Foreign service, as far as many were

in The culture of diplomacy
The 1980 Moscow boycott through contemporary Asian–African perspectives
Joseph Eaton

The 1980 Moscow boycott 203 11 Decentring US sports diplomacy: the 1980 Moscow boycott through contemporary Asian–African perspectives* Joseph Eaton The boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics is commonly described as having been a fiasco. The titles of books on the boycott tell of President Jimmy Carter’s failed response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan – Dropping the Torch: Jimmy Carter, the Olympic Boycott, and the Cold War by Nicholas Evan Sarantakes (2010) – and the unfair treatment given athletes, denied their chance to compete at Moscow – Boycott

in Sport and diplomacy
When the talking stops
Carole Gomez

Boycotts and diplomacy 169 9 Boycotts and diplomacy: when the talking stops* Carole Gomez ‘All of this is politics and we are not concerned with politics’, said Avery Brundage, president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), in response to a question about Rhodesia’s participation in the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich.1 A few days later, following the Munich massacre, Brundage declared, ‘[T]he Games must go on and we must continue our efforts to keep them clear, pure and honest and try to extend sportsmanship of the athletic field to other areas.’2

in Sport and diplomacy
Soft culture, cold partners
Author: Carla Konta

The book represents the first comprehensive account of the public and cultural diplomacy campaigns carried out by the United States in Yugoslavia during the height of the Cold War. Based on extensive multinational archival research, as well as private papers and personal interviews, this book charts the reasoning behind the US campaign and the impact it had on specific Yugoslav communities and individuals. American soft power, as a form of cultural power, deliberately sought to ‘open up’ a relatively closed society through the provision and diffusion of liberal traditions, ideas, and ideals. Tito and his Party allowed USIA and State Department cultural programs to enter Yugoslavia, liberated from Soviet control, to open cultural centres and pavilions at its main fairs, to broadcast Voice of America, and have American artists tour the country. Exchanges of intellectual and political personnel helped foster the US–Yugoslav relationship, but posed severe ideological challenges for both countries. By providing new insights into porous borders between freedom and coercion in Tito’s regime, the book shows how public diplomacy acted as an external input for Yugoslav liberalization and dissident movements. Meant for students, scholars, and general readers interested in the cultural Cold War, international relations, and diplomacy, this book fills a gap in the literature by looking at the political role of culture in US–Yugoslav bilateral relations, analysing the fluid links between information and propaganda, and the unintended effects propaganda can produce beyond the control of producers and receivers.

The private life of politics
Author: Bilge Firat

Turkey’s Europeanisation saga, which began in 1959 and climaxed in 2005 with the opening of membership negotiations with the European Union (EU), presents a unique opportunity to understand how interstate actors negotiate their interests; what ‘common interests’ look like from their historically and culturally contingent perspectives; and what happens when actors work for their private, professional, public, personal or institutional interests, even when those interests may go against their mandate. Honing in on the role of diplomats and lobbyists during negotiations for Turkey’s contentious EU membership bid, this book presents intricate, backstage conflicts of power and interests and negotiations of compromises, which drove this candidate country both closer to and farther from the EU. The reader will find in the book the everyday actors and agents of Turkish Europeanisation and learn what their work entails, which interests they represent and how they do what they do. Based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork in Brussels, the book argues that public, private and corporate actors, voicing economic, political and bureaucratic interests from all corners of Europe, sought access to markets and polities through the Turkish bid instead of pursuing their mandate of facilitating Turkey’s EU accession. Although limited progress was achieved in Turkey’s actual EU integration, diplomats and lobbyists from both sides of the negotiating table contradictorily affirmed their expertise as effective negotiators, seeking more status and power. This is the first book-length account of the EU–Turkey power-interest negotiations in situ, from the perspective of its long-term actors and agents.

Carla Konta

racial inequality in America, like Soviet propaganda suggested, coped with artists’ personal motivations, usually looking for personal success, and race or gender equality. Scholars working on public or cultural diplomacy more broadly usually focused on specific musicians, genres, or groups. Penny Von Eschen studied Louis Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespie, and Duke Ellington’s impact abroad; 7 Lisa Davenport and Ingrid Monson explored the value of jazz calling out the civil rights agenda in front of audiences worldwide; 8 while Clare Croft and Danielle Fossler

in US public diplomacy in socialist Yugoslavia, 1950–70
David Rowe

Football, diplomacy and Australia in the Asian century 147 8 Football, diplomacy and Australia in the Asian century David Rowe Admitting and expelling Australia? On the eve of the final of the 2015 AFC (Asian Football Confederation) Asian Cup final between host nation Australia and South Korea, the host city’s major newspaper, the Sydney Morning Herald, carried a story about a move among some of the west Asian (especially Gulf) nations to expel Australia from the Asian Football Confederation.1 For those among the hosts who believed that securing the event

in Sport and diplomacy
Britain in Europe, c. 1750–1830
Author: Jennifer Mori

This is not a traditional international relations text that deals with war, trade or power politics. Instead, this book offers an analysis of the social, cultural and intellectual aspects of diplomatic life in the age of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. The book illustrates several modes of Britain's engagement with Europe, whether political, artistic, scientific, literary or cultural. The book consults a wide range of sources for the study including the private and official papers of fifty men and women in the British diplomatic service. Attention is given to topics rarely covered in diplomatic history such as the work and experiences of women and issues of national, regional and European identity.

America, Britain and the United Nations during the Congo crisis 1960– 1964

In 1962, Congo was catapulted into the international consciousness as the scene of conflict and confusion when a civil and constitutional crisis erupted just a week after the independence ceremony. The breakdown of law and order began when the Congolese army, the Force Publique, mutinied against their Belgian officers, leading to violence and chaos in the capital Leopoldville. This book reinterprets the role of the United Nations (UN) Organization in this conflict by presenting a multidimensional view of how the UN operated in response to the crisis. The United States (US) and Britain were directly involved with formulating UN Congo policy, through an examination of the Anglo-American relationship. The book analyses how the crisis became positioned as a lightning rod in the interaction of decolonisation with the Cold War, and wider relations between North and South. It establishes why, in 1960, the outbreak of the Congo crisis and its successive internationalisation through UN intervention was an important question for Anglo-American relations. The book highlights the changing nature of the UN from 1960 to 1961. It focuses on the emergence of a new US policy in New York. Discussing the role of United Nations activities in the Congo (Operation des Nations Unies au Congo), it explains why military incursions into Katanga in September, and again in December of 1961, proved damaging to the Anglo-American relationship. The invigoration of the Secretariat, demands of the Afro-Asian bloc, Operation UNOKAT, and efforts to construct a Western friendly regime in the Congo are also discussed.