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Games within games
Editor: J. Simon Rofe

The purpose of this book is to critically enhance the appreciation of diplomacy and sport in global affairs from the perspective of practitioners and scholars. The book will make an important new contribution to at least two distinct fields: diplomacy and sport, as well as to those concerned with history, politics, sociology and international relations. The critical analysis the book provides explores the linkages across these fields, particularly in relation to soft power and public diplomacy, and is supported by a wide range of sources and methodologies. The book draws in a range of scholars across these different fields, and includes esteemed FIFA scholar Professor Alan Tomlinson. Tomlinson addresses diplomacy within the world’s global game of Association Football, while other subjects include the rise of mega-sport events as sites of diplomacy, new consideration of Chinese ping-pong diplomacy prior to the 1970s and the importance of boycotts in sport – particularly in relation to newly explored dimensions of the boycotts of the 1980 and 1984 Olympic Games. The place of non-state actors is explored throughout: be they individual or institutions they perform a crucial role as conduits of the transactions of sport and diplomacy. Based on twentieth- and twenty-first-century evidence, the book acknowledges antecedents from the ancient Olympics to the contemporary era, and in its conclusions offers avenues for further study based on the future sport and diplomacy relationship. The book has a strong international basis because it covers a broad range of countries, their diplomatic relationship with sport and is written by a truly transnational cast of authors. The intense media scrutiny of the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup and other international sports will also contribute to the global interest in this volume.

Negotiating for human rights protection and humanitarian access

Human rights and humanitarian diplomacy provides an up to date and accessible overview of the field, and serves as a practical guide to those seeking to engage in human rights work. Pease argues that while human rights are internationally recognised, important disagreements exist on definition, priority and implementation. With the help of human rights diplomacy, these differences can be bridged, and a new generation of human rights professionals will build better relationships.

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Kelly-Kate Pease

rights and humanitarian diplomacy. Often referred to as track 2 diplomacy, NGOs participate in diplomacy through their advocacy, their role as subcontractors, and as vehicles for citizen diplomacy. 2 This chapter also provides an overview of some of the more prominent NGOs and their contributions to human rights and humanitarian diplomacy. Recall that there are important distinctions between human rights and humanitarian affairs, and therefore, important differences between human rights NGOs and humanitarian NGOs. Both types of NGO often operate within the same

in Human rights and humanitarian diplomacy
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Jennifer Mori

1 Why diplomacy? In a celebrated chapter in his England in the Age of the American Revolution (1930) Sir Lewis Namier sought to answer the question why did men go into Parliament? His answer may be summed up that it was fashionable and profitable to be a Member of Parliament. If we ask why men went into the diplomatic service in the eighteenth century we must find a different set of answers, since entry to this service was both unfashionable and on the whole unprofitable. (Horn, The British Diplomatic Service, p. 85) Foreign service, as far as many were

in The culture of diplomacy
Soft culture, cold partners
Author: Carla Konta

The book represents the first comprehensive account of the public and cultural diplomacy campaigns carried out by the United States in Yugoslavia during the height of the Cold War. Based on extensive multinational archival research, as well as private papers and personal interviews, this book charts the reasoning behind the US campaign and the impact it had on specific Yugoslav communities and individuals. American soft power, as a form of cultural power, deliberately sought to ‘open up’ a relatively closed society through the provision and diffusion of liberal traditions, ideas, and ideals. Tito and his Party allowed USIA and State Department cultural programs to enter Yugoslavia, liberated from Soviet control, to open cultural centres and pavilions at its main fairs, to broadcast Voice of America, and have American artists tour the country. Exchanges of intellectual and political personnel helped foster the US–Yugoslav relationship, but posed severe ideological challenges for both countries. By providing new insights into porous borders between freedom and coercion in Tito’s regime, the book shows how public diplomacy acted as an external input for Yugoslav liberalization and dissident movements. Meant for students, scholars, and general readers interested in the cultural Cold War, international relations, and diplomacy, this book fills a gap in the literature by looking at the political role of culture in US–Yugoslav bilateral relations, analysing the fluid links between information and propaganda, and the unintended effects propaganda can produce beyond the control of producers and receivers.

Iver B. Neumann

In 1937, Harold Nicolson, still the best-known modern writer on diplomacy, wrote a slim volume with the title The Evolution of Diplomatic Method ( [1937] 1998 ). In 2011, Keith Hamilton and Richard Langhorne released the second edition of their The Practice of Diplomacy: Its Evolution, Theory, and Administration . The last century has seen a series of books, essays and even blog spots on diplomacy that advertise themselves as somehow evolutionary. However, almost all of them use the concept of evolution in the everyday sense of emergence. 1 They do not make

in Diplomatic tenses
Carla Konta

racial inequality in America, like Soviet propaganda suggested, coped with artists’ personal motivations, usually looking for personal success, and race or gender equality. Scholars working on public or cultural diplomacy more broadly usually focused on specific musicians, genres, or groups. Penny Von Eschen studied Louis Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespie, and Duke Ellington’s impact abroad; 7 Lisa Davenport and Ingrid Monson explored the value of jazz calling out the civil rights agenda in front of audiences worldwide; 8 while Clare Croft and Danielle Fossler

in US public diplomacy in socialist Yugoslavia, 1950–70
The 1980 Moscow boycott through contemporary Asian–African perspectives
Joseph Eaton

The 1980 Moscow boycott 203 11 Decentring US sports diplomacy: the 1980 Moscow boycott through contemporary Asian–African perspectives* Joseph Eaton The boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics is commonly described as having been a fiasco. The titles of books on the boycott tell of President Jimmy Carter’s failed response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan – Dropping the Torch: Jimmy Carter, the Olympic Boycott, and the Cold War by Nicholas Evan Sarantakes (2010) – and the unfair treatment given athletes, denied their chance to compete at Moscow – Boycott

in Sport and diplomacy
When the talking stops
Carole Gomez

Boycotts and diplomacy 169 9 Boycotts and diplomacy: when the talking stops* Carole Gomez ‘All of this is politics and we are not concerned with politics’, said Avery Brundage, president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), in response to a question about Rhodesia’s participation in the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich.1 A few days later, following the Munich massacre, Brundage declared, ‘[T]he Games must go on and we must continue our efforts to keep them clear, pure and honest and try to extend sportsmanship of the athletic field to other areas.’2

in Sport and diplomacy
Iver B. Neumann

Extant work on the emergence of diplomacy is largely textual. 1 And yet, diplomacy works not only through text but also in other social registers. One of these registers is visual. This chapter looks at how visual practices have come to constitute an international institution in the same way that diplomacy has historically, and identifies the evolutionary variation and stability in contemporary visual diplomacy. I draw up a taxonomy of three visual strategies, one of which is dominant, or hegemonic. The two others are subaltern, or dominated. When diplomats

in Diplomatic tenses