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The case of Romania

The post-communist transition in Romania has been a period rife with high hopes and expectations as well as strong disappointments and disillusions. The engagement with these disappointments or disillusions has mainly fallen along the lines of critical editorial comments by dissidents and intellectuals or academic engagements that connect it to different forms of social and political apathy. What seems to be lacking however, is a more head-on engagement with disillusionment as a self-contained process that is not just a side-effect of political corruption or economic failures but rather an intrinsic part of any transition. This book provides the basis for a theory of disillusionment in instances of transition. It also elaborates on how such a theory could be applied to a specific case-study, in this instance, the Romanian transition from communism to capitalism. By defining disillusionment as the loss of particularly strong collective illusions, the book identifies what those illusions were in the context of the Romanian 1989 Revolution. It also seeks to understand the extent to which disillusionment is intrinsic to social change, and more importantly, determine whether it plays an essential role in shaping both the direction and the form of change. The book further inevitably places itself at the intersection of a number of different academic literatures: from regional and comparative studies, political science and "transitology" studies, to sociology, psychology and cultural studies.

Anca Mihaela Pusca

3 An anatomy of disillusionment Why illusions and disillusions? The word that has been perhaps most often employed to express the effects of the changes brought about by the collapse of the Berlin Wall and the 1989 revolutions across Central and Eastern Europe is disillusionment. People have generally used it as a way to describe a certain state of being—a sense of hopelessness—that had significant effects on both the physical and psychological ability of individuals to tackle the changes at hand. Disillusionment was mentioned in a number of different contexts

in Revolution, democratic transition and disillusionment
James Baldwin in Conversation with Fritz J. Raddatz (1978)
Gianna Zocco

This is the first English-language publication of an interview with James Baldwin conducted by the German writer, editor, and journalist Fritz J. Raddatz in 1978 at Baldwin’s house in St. Paul-de-Vence. In the same year, it was published in German in the weekly newspaper Die Zeit, as well as in a book of Raddatz’s conversations with international writers, and—in Italian translation—in the newspaper La Repubblica. The interview covers various topics characteristic of Baldwin’s interests at the time—among them his thoughts about Jimmy Carter’s presidency, his reasons for planning to return to the United States, his disillusionment after the series of murders of black civil rights activists in the 1960s and 1970s, and the role of love and sexuality in his literary writings. A special emphasis lies on the discussion of possible parallels between Nazi Germany and U.S. racism, with Baldwin most prominently likening the whole city of New York to a concentration camp. Due to copyright reasons, this reprint is based on an English translation of the edited version published in German. A one-hour tape recording of the original English conversation between Raddatz and Baldwin is accessible at the German literary archive in Marbach.

James Baldwin Review
Middle-Aged Syrian Women’s Contributions to Family Livelihoods during Protracted Displacement in Jordan
Dina Sidhva, Ann-Christin Zuntz, Ruba al Akash, Ayat Nashwan, and Areej Al-Majali

, Exploitation and Disillusionment in the UK Overseas Syrian Refugee Research Industry ’, Antipode , 51 : 2 , 664 – 80 . Thompson , E. ( 2000 ), Colonial Citizens: Republican Rights, Paternal Privilege, and Gender in French Syria and Lebanon ( New York : Columbia University Press

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Authority and vision

John McGahern is one of those writers whose work continues to be appreciated across a range of readerships. As a writer who eschewed the notion of himself as 'artist' he addressed his task through a commitment to style, what he called the 'revelation of the personality through language'. McGahern's work began to receive critical attention only from when Denis Sampson's seminal study, Outstaring Nature's Eye: The Fiction of John McGahern was published in 1993. This book focuses on the physical landscape to show how the inadequacy of the State that emerged after 1922 is reflected in the characters' shifting relationship with the landscape, the connection has been made vulnerable through trauma and painful memory. It explores this sense of resentment and disillusionment in McGahern's novels, drawing parallels between the revolutionary memories and McGahern's own family experience. McGahern's All Over Ireland offers a number of fine stories, mostly set in Ireland, and dealing with distinctly Irish themes. He wrote a novel that is an example of openness, compassion and understanding for any form of strangeness. The vision of education and of the shaping of identity found in his writing is not an idiosyncratic one - it is consistent with much of the best thought within the tradition of liberal education. The book provides an intriguing comparison between McGahern and Flannery O'Connor, illustrating how diverse stories share an underlying current of brutality, demonstrating their respective authors' preoccupation with a human propensity towards evil.

British First World War prose, 1914–30
Author: Andrew Frayn

This book argues that disenchantment is not only a response to wartime experience, but a condition of modernity with a language that finds extreme expression in First World War literature. The objects of disenchantment are often the very same as the enchantments of scientific progress: bureaucracy, homogenisation and capitalism. Older beliefs such as religion, courage and honour are kept in view, and endure longer than often is realised. Social critics, theorists and commentators of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries provide a rich and previously unexplored context for wartime and post-war literature. The rise of the disenchanted narrative to its predominance in the War Books Boom of 1928 – 1930 is charted from the turn of the century in texts, archival material, sales and review data. Rarely-studied popular and middlebrow novels are analysed alongside well-known highbrow texts: D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, H. G. Wells and Rebecca West rub shoulders with forgotten figures such as Gilbert Frankau and Ernest Raymond. These sometimes jarring juxtapositions show the strained relationship between enchantment and disenchantment in the war and the post-war decade.

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Anca Mihaela Pusca

1 Introduction The post-communist transition in Romania has been a period rife with high hopes and expectations as well as strong disappointments and disillusions. The engagement with these disappointments or disillusions has mainly fallen along the lines of critical editorial comments by dissidents and intellectuals or academic engagements that connect it to different forms of social and political apathy. What seems to be lacking however, is a more head-on engagement with disillusionment as a self-contained process that is not just a side-effect of political

in Revolution, democratic transition and disillusionment
Christine E. Hallett

numbers of French ‘lady volunteers’, motivated more by patriotism than by a desire to nurse. Disillusionment and despair: meeting the realities of war The opportunity to cross the Atlantic and travel to the Old World of which they had heard so much fired the imaginations of many American women. Some freely admitted to having been driven by highly romantic fantasies. Shirley Millard described how she ‘wanted to save France from the marauding enemy’, adding that ‘banners streamed in my blood; drums beat in my brain; bugles sounded in my ears’.4 Millard began her published

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
The case of the Timisoara revolutionaries
Anca Mihaela Pusca

and generally disillusioned and the extent to which their experience is reflective of the way in which other Romanians have experienced the transition. By seeking to determine at which point the transition from revolutionary enchantment to post-revolutionary disillusionment occurred and what the circumstances were that led to it, the chapter follows the historical thread of the revolution, picking out events and circumstances that have either been surrounded by controversy or have remained for the most part silent/silenced. This particular portrayal of the Romanian

in Revolution, democratic transition and disillusionment
The greening of the Social Democratic and Labour Party
Sarah Campbell

Tonge argue that politically, the late 1970s in Northern Ireland were overshadowed by the failure of Sunningdale.114 Sunningdale was undoubtedly the pinnacle of Fitt’s career, and the remainder of the 1970s show his growing disillusionment both with Northern Ireland politics and with the party he helped to form and led. Murray claims that the SDLP could not have been formed without Fitt. He was essential to the SDLP to give it the necessary limelight to advance its policies and justify its existence.115 He gave credibility to the twin aims of nationalism and socialism

in Gerry Fitt and the SDLP